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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The unique characteristics of a learning organization is that
a. the members learn about each other
b. it has the capacity to gather new information and use it for improvement
c. it focuses on selecting new employees who love learning and are highly skilled
d. employees are rewarded for submitting creative suggestions and participating in their implementation
b. it has the capacity to gather new information and use it for improvement
The best reason for presenting a training program is because:
a. it contributes to the organization's goals and objectives
b. it has been highly advertised.
c. competitors are using the training.
d. concern about federal agency pressure.
a. it contributes to the organization's goals and objectives
The systems model of training contains three phases: __________, training and development, and evaluation.
a. preparation
b. assessment
c. introduction
d. organizing
b. assessment
In assessing training needs, an examination of production efficiency, labor costs, turnover, and accidents would be part of which training needs analysis?
a. personnel
b. task
c. operations
d. organizational
d. organizational
The major difference between training and education is that:
a. education refers more to acquiring specific skills.
b. education is more closely related to learning a particular job.
c. training provides more general knowledge.
d. training narrows the range of responses while education broadens the range.
d. training narrows the range of responses while education broadens the range.
The best method for conducting a training needs analysis when data needs to be obtained from a large number of employees is
a. interviews
b. observations
c. questionnaires
d. focus groups
c. questionnaires
The process of selectively reinforcing a response to change the behavior of a person is associated with
a. behavioral modeling
b. operant conditioning
c. education
d. learning
b. operant conditioning
The concept in social cognitive theory that behavior is influenced by the environment and personality, and that the environment is likewise influenced by behavior and personality, is called
a. dynamic homeostasis
b. reciprocal determinism
c. reverse interactionism
d. inverse influence
b. reciprocal determinism
A legitimate difference between andragogy versus methods for teaching children focuses on
a. the ability to utilize past experience in the training
b. the desire to participate in the learning experience
c. the desire for relevant learning that is problem-centered
d. the need to involve the learner in the learning process
a. the ability to utilize past experience in the training
Carefully preparing a training manual so that each idea effectively builds on the previous ideas illustrates which training principle?
a. Stimulus: meaningful organization of materials
b. Response: practice and repetition
c. Feedback: knowledge of results
d. Transfer of Training: sequencing the learning
a. Stimulus: meaningful organization of materials
Knowledge of results is most helpful when:
a. it comes immediately after each response.
b. it comes after a series of responses.
c. it is summarized showing average rates.
d. it simply tells the learners whether they were right or wrong, but not why.
a. it comes immediately after each response.
The best strategy for reducing the problems of transfer of training is
a. to have the trainee practice the learning longer in each training session
b. to have the trainee develop an action plan for implementing the new learning
c. to provide more immediate feedback during the training period
d. to lengthen the training time over additional training periods
b. to have the trainee develop an action plan for implementing the new learning
Difficult tasks that are hard to comprehend usually produce what sort of learning curve?
a. positively accelerating
b. negatively accelerating
c. linear
d. upside-down U-shaped
a. positively accelerating
Which explanation for forgetting suggests that new learning interferes with the retention of old learning?
a. repression
b. motivated forgetting
c. proactive inhibition
d. retroactive inhibition
d. retroactive inhibition
The three elements of good training objectives are: (a) they are stated in behavioral terms, (b) they specify the conditions, constraints, and time limitations, and (c) they specify
a. the standards of acceptable performance
b. behaviors that are realistic
c. socially acceptable activities
d. what is important to the organization
a. the standards of acceptable performance
An important advantage of on-the-job training is that it
a. provides immediate transfer of training
b. allows employees to learn at their own rate without any pressure to produce
c. provides for greater group interaction
d. reduces the costs of supervision
a. provides immediate transfer of training
The training method made famous by the War Manpower Board during World War II, which involves a brief explanation, a demonstration, and then a performance try-out by the learner, is called:
a. job instruction training
b. vestibule training
c. vicarious learning
d. behavior modeling
a. job instruction training
Many colleges and universities have arranged for students to work part-time in a special training program as part of their education. This training is called:
a. college trainee experience
b. educational credits program
c. coordinated education
d. an internship
d. an internship
Which training method has limited usefulness because it does not provide for active participation of the learners, and there is no practice, no feedback, no knowledge of results, and limited transfer of training?
a. special study
b. simulation
c. programmed instruction
d. lecture
d. lecture
Trainee involvement and immediate feedback are prominent in which training method?
a. lecture
b. correspondence courses
c. programmed instruction
d. audio visual techniques
c. programmed instruction
The training method that presents information in small segments one frame at a time and requires the learner to make some type of response to show that each segment has been learned is called
a. segmented learning
b. incremental learning
c. learning by parts
d. programmed instruction
d. programmed instruction

Programmed instruction is the name of the technology invented by the behaviorist B.F. Skinner to improve teaching. It is based on his theory of Verbal Behavior as a means to accelerate and increase conventional educational learning.
The major benefit of off-site training programs is
a. there is more space for the training to take place
b. job-related distractions can be minimized
c. the training facilities are usually more comfortable
d. the training can be provided by outside experts
b. job-related distractions can be minimized
What are the legal restrictions on using copyrighted audio-visual materials in a training program?
a. There are no restrictions within the United States provided that an admissions fee is not charged for seeing them.
b. Copyrighted materials fall under the “fair use” clause for educational purposes.
c. The trainer can view them but they cannot be shown to trainees unless the trainer has a licensed agreement.
d. An admissions fee for all trainees must be paid either by the trainees or the company sponsoring the training.
c. The trainer can view them but they cannot be shown to trainees unless the trainer has a licensed agreement.
Tests would most likely be used for evaluating the results of training programs when which criterion is utilized?
a. reaction
b. learning
c. behavior
d. results
b. learning

To what extent did participants improve knowledge and skills and change attitudes as a result of the training?
Which of the following illustrates using results as a criteria for evaluating a supervisory training program?
a. an interpersonal relations rating scale completed by the subordinates of each supervisor
b. a 10-item questionnaire asking the supervisors to evaluate the results of the training
c. a frequency count of how often the supervisors praised or disciplined their subordinates over the next 8 weeks
d. measures of turnover, productivity improvement, and grievances in each supervisor's department
d. measures of turnover, productivity improvement, and grievances in each supervisor's department
While a trainer was trying to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-week training program on communication using a pre-test/post-test comparison, an international incident occurred because of a communication breakdown. This confounding event would create a competing explanation referred to in the experimental literature as:
a. Hawthorne effect
b. international bias
c. maturation
d. history
d. history

History occurs when participants experience an event (external to the experimental treatment) that affects their post test scores.
Which of the following is the best research design for evaluating a training program?
a. pre-test/post-test design using two established groups – one assigned as the experimental group and one as the control group
b. case study
c. Solomon Four-Group Design
d. pre-test/post-test comparison using one group
c. Solomon Four-Group Design

The Solomon four group design is a way of avoiding some of the difficulties associated with the pretest-posttest design. This design contains two extra control groups, which serve to reduce the influence of confounding variables and allow the researcher to test whether the pretest itself has an effect on the subjects.
In the role transition process of organizational socialization, separation refers to:
a. marital separation
b. organizational turnover
c. psychologically abandoning a former role
d. changing to a new organization
c. psychologically abandoning a former role
Which of the following statements is the best definition of a career?
a. The work-related experiences of people who work in professional or technical occupations.
b. The work-related experiences of those who work in major corporations.
c. The work-related experiences of people who pursue any type of paid employment.
d. The work-related experiences of everyone, regardless of whether it's paid or nonpaid, in one organization or many organizations.
d. The work-related experiences of everyone, regardless of whether it's paid or nonpaid, in one organization or many organizations.
Being a mentor and assuming the responsibility for supervising the work of others are central activities for professionals in which stage of career development?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
c. three
A dual career family refers to:
a. both husband and wife have a job outside the home
b. the husband works a part-time job in addition to a full-time job
c. the major bread winner has two full-time careers
d. one spouse has been married before
a. both husband and wife have a job outside the home
The "mommy track" is defined as
a. A career path for women who do not want to work outside the home.
b. A career path for women who want to be both mothers and highly successful professionals.
c. A career path for women who are willing to sacrifice promotions for flexible jobs with less travel so they can be more involved in raising their children.
d. A career path for men who raise children while their wives work.
c. A career path for women who are willing to sacrifice promotions for flexible jobs with less travel so they can be more involved in raising their children.
In developing an international human resource program, which factor is most critical to the success of an expatriate assignment in a foreign country?
a. equalizing negative tax consequences
b. adaptation of the spouse and family to the foreign country
c. providing for security of expatriate and the family
d. readjustment training upon repatriation
b. adaptation of the spouse and family to the foreign country
Orientation training for new employees is better if:
a. trainees are warned that they will probably not succeed
b. a mentor or sponsor is assigned to them
c. they are introduced to everyone the first day
d. the entire orientation training is presented the first morning
b. a mentor or sponsor is assigned to them
Which of the following best describes the proper role of performance evaluation in the employment exchange?
a. Employers should trust employees to perform well and not have to check up on them.
b. Only those employees who fail to demonstrate that they can be trusted should be evaluated.
c. Performance evaluations should be conducted only on managers and used for promotion decisions.
d. All employees should expect to have their performance evaluated and this information should be used for pay increase and promotion decisions.
d. All employees should expect to have their performance evaluated and this information should be used for pay increase and promotion decisions.
When one characteristic about a person–positive or negative–strongly influences all other attitudes about the person, this is called
a. leniency-strictness effect
b. halo effect
c. central tendency effect
d. contrast effect
b. halo effect

Employee is extremely competent in one area and is therefore rated high in all categories (halo) or weakness in one area results in overall low rating (horn)
The factors on which an employee is evaluated are called
a. valid characteristics
b. the criteria of performance
c. practical items
d. unbiased characteristics
b. the criteria of performance
In selecting the appropriate criteria for performance evaluation, freedom from contamination refers to
a. eliminating subjective impressions of supervisors
b. eliminating the influence of external people such as customers or clients
c. eliminating the effects of extraneous factors that are beyond the control of the employee
d. statistically adjusting the evaluations to correct for subjectivity and bias
c. eliminating the effects of extraneous factors that are beyond the control of the employee
Categorizing employees into three categories of high, medium, and low is an illustration of which performance evaluation procedure?
a. Classification
b. Ranking
c. Forced choice
d. Partitioning
a. Classification
Which of the following procedures is least subject to the problems of central tendency and leniency-strictness?
a. Classification
b. Ranking
c. Graphic rating scales
d. BARS
b. Ranking
When developing a graphic rating scale the best method for selecting the appropriate
characteristics is the
a. survey of work values
b. behavioral profile
c. critical incident method
d. behavioral nomination method
c. critical incident method

The critical incident method of performance appraisal involved identifying and describing specific events (or incidents) where the employee did something really well or something that needs improvement. It's a technique based on the description of the event, and does not rely on the assignment of ratings or rankings, although it is occasionally coupled with a ratings type system.
The major difference between a behaviorally-anchored rating scale (BARS) and a behavior observation scale (BOS) is that
a. only BARS is a behaviorally-based evaluation method.
b. with BOS, the evaluator simply records the frequency of behavior without evaluating it
c. only BARS contains multiple dimensions of performance
d. with BOS the evaluator uses more categories of effectivene
b. with BOS, the evaluator simply records the frequency of behavior without evaluating it

A behavior observation scale (BOS) is an appraisal method that measures behavior against levels of performance and also measures the frequency with which the behaviors occur.
A confrontive appraisal interview that focuses on what employees have contributed to the organization is called
a. a behavioral analysis
b. a contributions appraisal
c. a stress appraisal
d. a terminal interview
b. a contributions appraisal
Studies examining the effects of performance evaluations on promotion decisions generally conclude that
a. performance information is the single most significant influence on promotion decisions
b. performance evaluations are second to company loyalty in determining promotions
c. performance information is essentially overlooked in making promotion decisions even though most managers think it is used extensively
d. performance information is not used and almost no one pretends that it is
c. performance information is essentially overlooked in making promotion decisions even though most managers think it is used extensively
According to force field analysis,
a. change will occur when the sum of the opposing forces is zero.
b. ignoring forces against change facilitates the change process.
c. change occurs when forces in one direction exceed forces in opposing directions.
d. forces resisting change must be eliminated before change can occur
c. change occurs when forces in one direction exceed forces in opposing directions.
What is the main drawback of overcoming resistance to change through a strategy of education and communication?
a. tends to be resented by union leaders
b. can be very time consuming
c. tends to breed suspicion
d. too expensive
b. can be very time consuming
In the action research model of organizational development,
a. internal rather than external change agents are used.
b. the change agent is responsible for generating and monitoring the change strategies
c. the change agent collaborates extensively with the client group in gathering and analyzing data.
d. all data are quantitative data that are analyzed statistically.
c. the change agent collaborates extensively with the client group in gathering and analyzing data.
Employee empowerment refers to
a. giving employees the freedom to identify and implement better work procedures
b. requiring employees to obtain the proper authorizations
c. a labor dispute in which employees resist the authority of management
d. increasing the pay of employees to make them feel powerful
a. giving employees the freedom to identify and implement better work procedures
An OD intervention refers to
a. a new organizational social system
b. a series of planned activities designed to improve organizational functioning
c. a change in the technological structure
d. the adoption of new technology
b. a series of planned activities designed to improve organizational functioning

There are four basic categories of OD interventions.
-Human Processes: team building, conflict resolution, personal growth workshops, interpersonal skills and communications training
-Technological-structural: total quality management, work process redesign...
-Human Resource Management: job design, hiring and selection, performance management, reward systems, multicultural training
-Strategic: strategic planning/management, Future Search conferences that help large diverse groups discover common values, purposes, and projects; corporate culture change, building a "learning organization" in which people at all levels are continually learning,
Relative to OD interventions, process consultation is aimed at the _______ , whereas _______ is aimed at the entire organization.
a. individual; role analysis
b. group; skill development
c. individual; survey feedback
d. group; team building
c. individual; survey feedback
Which organizational development technique has been criticized for possible harmful effects to participants?
a. Sensitivity training
b. Team building
c. Grid Organization Development
d. Survey feedback
a. Sensitivity training
Which of the following would probably increase rather than decrease the level of conflict between two groups?
a. find a common enemy
b. have them participate in joint social activities
c. exchange members between groups
d. engage in competitive events together
d. engage in competitive events together
Which of the following would not be one of the steps in a TQM intervention?
a. Defining the major functions and services that must be performed.
b. Identifying the customer's requirements and developing quantitative measures to assess them.
c. Flow-charting the processes that occur within each department.
d. Performing a culture audit using an ethnographic study.
e. Continuously improving the production process with respect to effectiveness, quality, cycle time, and cost.
d. Performing a culture audit using an ethnographic study.
The change agent interviewed the old-timers to write a history of the company for younger employees who were unfamiliar with the company's background. This activity is most likely part of a _________ intervention.
a. structural
b. historical
c. cultural
d. process consultation
c. cultural
Materials are protected under U.S. copyright law:
a. Immediately upon registering the work with the U.S. Copyright office
b. Once the work is first presented to the public
c. The moment the work is first printed or saved electronically
d. Upon receipt of the copyright authorization from the Copyright office
c. The moment the work is first printed or saved electronically
Copyright protection covers the life of the author plus:
a. 45 Years
b. 100 Years
c. 70 Years
d. 15 Years
c. 70 Years
All of the following federal laws pertain to training and development opportunities,
except:
a. ADEA
b. ADA
c. Title VII of the CRA
d. FLSA
d. FLSA
Two need-based motivational theories are based on work by:
a. Maslow and Herzberg
b. McGregor and Vroom
c. Adam and Skinner
d. Maslow and McGregor
a. Maslow and Herzberg


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
• Basic physical needs•
• Safety and Security
• Belonging and Love
• Esteem
• Self-actualization

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory:
• Hygiene factors – surround the job; make up the environment in which the employees work (job security, pay, supervision, working conditions, relations with coworkers)
• Motivation factors – present in the job itself (recognition, achievement, and personal growth)
Theory Y managers believe that:
a. Most people want and like work
b. Employees must be closely supervised
c. Most people rather not work if they could afford to quit
d. Employees work for their paycheck
a. Most people want and like work
Behavior modification uses the theories of:
a. Abraham Maslow
b. B.F. Skinner
c. Peter Drucker
d. Frederick Taylor
b. B.F. Skinner

Skinner’s Behavioral Reinforcement Theory:
Principles of behavior can be used in training people or in changing their behavior; management can control the behavior of employees by prompt, positive reinforcement of desired behavior
• Positive Reinforcement
• Negative Reinforcement
• Punishment
• Extinction
• Reinforcement Schedules (Fixed interval - paychecks,
Fixed ratio – piece-rate pay or sales commission, Variable interval – occasional praise, Variable ratio – random quality checks w/ praise for 0 defects)
Blake-Mouton’s theory describes the following four types of leadership style:
a. Authoritarian, Team, country club, Impoverished
b. Dominant, Authoritarian, Energized, and Team
c. Authoritarian, Team, Laissez-faire, and Inadequate
d. Team, Individualistic, Self-Adequate, and Concerned
a. Authoritarian, Team, country club, Impoverished

The three functions of HRD are:
a. Orientation, training, and de-employment
b. Training, individual development, and strategic development
c. Training, individual development, and organizational development
d. Strategic, operation, and individual
c. Training, individual development, and organizational development
The training focus of a Lower Cost Leadership business strategy would be on:
a. Creativity, marketing, and product knowledge
b. Consistent procedures, and customer service
c. Creativity and consistent procedures
d. Quality control, consistency, and speed of production
d. Quality control, consistency, and speed of production
Career planning is the:
a. Individual’s educational and development activities taken to control the
direction of their own career
b. The organization’s involvement in the employee’s career plan
c. Organization’s goals for each employee
d. Career path for management employees
a. Individual’s educational and development activities taken to control the
direction of their own career
An organization may choose to do all of the following to motivate a plateaued worker,
except:
a. Lateral moves
b. Promotion
c. Temporary assignments
d. Committee assignments
b. Promotion
A career that progresses through a series of related occupations is a:
a. Spiral Career
b. Protean Career
c. Transitory Career
d. Linear Career
a. Spiral Career
Under _________, employees may be reimbursed for qualified tuition expenses.
a. IRS Tax Code 127
b. Executive Order 11246
c. The DOL Tuition Reimbursement Act
d. IRS Tax Code 125
a. IRS Tax Code 127

Sec. 127= Educational Assistance Programs
The most common type of employee training is:
a. Learning by actually doing the job training
b. Training on off-the-job equipment
c. Modeling the behavior of others
d. A combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training
a. Learning by actually doing the job training
Job enrichment involves:
a. Adding more depth to a job
b. Broadening the scope of a job
c. Rotating the order in which the tasks are done
d. Giving feedback directly to the employee
a. Adding more depth to a job
All of the following are true of dual-career couples except:
a. They have more to lose when relocating
b. They are more mobile due to higher combined incomes
c. Part-time, work-at-home, and flextime are acceptable options
d. Their numbers are increasing
b. They are more mobile due to higher combined incomes
The three functions of HRD are:
a. Orientation, training, and de-employment
b. Training, individual development, and strategic development
c. Training, individual development, and organizational development
d. Strategic, operation, and individual
c. Training, individual development, and organizational development
The training focus of a Lower Cost Leadership business strategy would be on:
a. Creativity, marketing, and product knowledge
b. Consistent procedures, and customer service
c. Creativity and consistent procedures
d. Quality control, consistency, and speed of production
d. Quality control, consistency, and speed of production
Career planning is the:
a. Individual’s educational and development activities taken to control the direction of their own career
b. The organization’s involvement in the employee’s career plan
c. Organization’s goals for each employee
d. Career path for management employees
a. Individual’s educational and development activities taken to control the
direction of their own career
An organization may choose to do all of the following to motivate a plateaued worker,
except:
a. Lateral moves
b. Promotion
c. Temporary assignments
d. Committee assignments
b. Promotion
A career that progresses through a series of related occupations is a:
a. Spiral Career
b. Protean Career
c. Transitory Career
d. Linear Career
a. Spiral Career
Under _________, employees may be reimbursed for qualified tuition expenses.
a. IRS Tax Code 127
b. Executive Order 11246
c. The DOL Tuition Reimbursement Act
d. IRS Tax Code 125
a. IRS Tax Code 127

Sec. 127= Educational Assistance Programs
The most common type of employee training is:
a. Learning by actually doing the job training
b. Training on off-the-job equipment
c. Modeling the behavior of others
d. A combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training
a. Learning by actually doing the job training
Job enrichment involves:
a. Adding more depth to a job
b. Broadening the scope of a job
c. Rotating the order in which the tasks are done
d. Giving feedback directly to the employee
a. Adding more depth to a job
All of the following are true of dual-career couples except:
a. They have more to lose when relocating
b. They are more mobile due to higher combined incomes
c. Part-time, work-at-home, and flextime are acceptable
d. Their numbers are increasing
b. They are more mobile due to higher combined incomes
The steps detailed in the ADDIE model of training are:
a. Assess, develop, design, implement, and evaluate
b. Assign, design, develop, investigate, and evaluate
c. Assess, design, develop, implement, and evaluate
d. Assess, define, design, implement, and evaluate
c. Assess, design, develop, implement, and evaluate

-Assess: Define the needs and constraints
-Design: Specify learning activities, assessment and choose methods and media
-Develop: Begin production, formative evaluation, and revise
-Implement: Put the plan into action
-Evaluate: Evaluate the plan from all levels for next implementation
Training objectives should be all of the following except:
a. Specific
b. Realistic
c. Easy to interpret
d. Timely
c. Easy to interpret
Which of the following is not a basic method for evaluating training programs?
a. Reaction
b. Learning
c. Behavior modeling
d. Results
c. Behavior modeling
Which of the following training programs would most likely be conducted by
external training resources?
a. Harassment training
b. Train-the-Trainer
c. OSHA training
d. Orientation
b. Train-the-Trainer
Training expatriates to prepare for global assignments includes all of the following
except:
a. Pre-departure training for both the employee and family
b. Business etiquette of the other culture
c. On-the-job training in the new country
d. Cross-cultural technology
c. On-the-job training in the new country
Basics are learned quickly, then learning slows are more complex skills are mastered
with a ________ learning curve.
a. Decreasing returns
b. Increasing returns
c. S-shaped
d. Plateaued
a. Decreasing returns
The best answer for determining if training is cost effective is to:
a. Look for reductions in voluntary turnover
b. Compare the costs and benefits associated with the training
c. Measure improvements in performance
d. Assess the attitude changes in participants
b. Compare the costs and benefits associated with the training
The performance appraisal system that specifies the performance goals that an individual and manager agree the employee will attain within a specific period of time is called:
a. Management by Objectives
b. Behavioral Expectations
c. Behavioral Anchored Rating
d. Critical Incident
a. Management by Objectives
Rating all employees in a narrow range in the middle of the rating scale is an error of
_________.
a. Central tendency
b. Contrast error
c. Leniency
d. Similar-to-me
a. Central tendency
The three phases of training are:
a. Needs assessment, implementation, evaluation
b. Job analysis, surveying trainees, evaluation
c. Commitment from upper management, needs assessment, evaluation
d. Approach, emphasis, presentation
a. Needs assessment, implementation, evaluation
The three learning domains that influence or change behavior are:
a. Identification, development, education
b. Cooperation, sharing, evaluating
c. Preparing, implementing, evaluating
d. Skills, knowledge, attitude
d. Skills, knowledge, attitude
The Hawthorne Studies focused on which of the following:
a. Assessing the impact of physical and environment on performance
b. Factors of employee’s social groups and interpersonal relationships created at the work place
c. Examining interpersonal behavior and credibility
d. Examining the factors that determine the need for achievement
a. Assessing the impact of physical and environment on performance
A training technique that involves transferring trainees to different jobs to broaden their focus and to increase their knowledge is:
a. Job rotation
b. Job-instruction training
c. Imitative learning
d. Computer-assisted instruction
a. Job rotation
Which is not one of the six levels of learning?
a. Knowledge
b. Application
c. Analysis
d. Apprenticeship
d. Apprenticeship

6 Levels of Learning:
-Knowledge (common terms, facts, principles, procedures)
-Comprehension (understanding of facts and principles, interpretation of material)
-Application (solving problems, applying concepts and principles to new situations), ask these kinds of question
-Analysis (recognition of unstated assumptions or logical fallacies, ability to distinguish between facts and inferences)
-Synthesis (integrate learning from different areas or solve problems by creative thinking)
-Evaluation (judging and assessing)
Which is not one of the four criteria for evaluating training programs?
a. Behavior
b. Synthesis
c. Reactions
d. Learning
b. Synthesis

The four levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model essentially measure:
-Reaction of student - what they thought and felt about the training
-Learning - the resulting increase in knowledge or capability
-Behavior - extent of behavior and capability improvement and implementation/application
-Results - the effects on the business or environment resulting from the trainee's performance
Which of the following job design practices broadens the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed?
a. Job enrichment
b. Division of labor
c. Job rotation
d. Job enlargement
d. Job enlargement
An employer’s mission statement includes:
a. short-term needs to meet the strategic plan
b. a statement of purpose for what the organization values
c. long-term objectives
d. a statement of employment practices
b. a statement of purpose for what the organization values
Direct costs to an employer include:
a. costs of operating a program
b. costs for operating the entire department
c. costs for operating a unit
d. costs for operating a division
a. costs of operating a program
The Hawthorne Studies:
a. examined the personal and interpersonal behaviors in a group setting, which means that trainers should have credibility in their instruction
b. looked at formal and informal work groups and at factors influencing their cohesiveness and effectiveness, which means social group and interpersonal factors are of key importance to designing a training environment
c. assessed the impact of physical and environmental influence on employee performance, which means special notice from management may work to increase motivation
d. examined the factors that determine the need for achievement and explored their relationship to occupational choice which means employees view training better when they see how it helps their career development
c. assessed the impact of physical and environmental influence on employee performance, which means special notice from management may work to increase motivation
Which of the following is not a type of training needs analyses?
a. task analyses
b. organizational analyses
c. operations analyses
d. individual analyses
c. operations analyses
Common forms of behaviorally experienced training include all of the following except:
a. diversity training
b. in-basket training
c. apprenticeship
d. case studies/incidents
e. business games
c. apprenticeship
Which of the following is not one of the four strategies used in behavior modification approach?
a. behavior modeling
b. positive reinforcement
c. negative reinforcement
d. punishment
e. extinction
a. behavior modeling

Four strategies that are part of Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory:
b. positive reinforcement
c. negative reinforcement
d. punishment
e. extinction
The preparation of the employee for future responsibility, often at a different level in the organization is?
a. development
b. training
c. education
d. needs assessment
a. development
What assesses the impact of physical and environmental influence on employee performance, which means special notice from management, may work to increase motivation?
a. group dynamics
b. laboratory training
c. Hawthorne studies
d. need for achievement
c. Hawthorne studies
All of the following are types of a training needs analysis, except:
a. organizational analysis
b. financial analysis
c. task analysis
d. individual analysis
b. financial analysis
The performance of job-related tasks and duties by trainees during training is known as:
a. Spaced Practice
b. Active Practice
c. Massed Practice
d. Training Practice
b. Active Practice
Which is not a benefit of training?
a. To increase company expenses
b. Reduction in errors
c. Reduction in turnover
d. Attitude Changes
a. To increase company expenses
What does the acronym KSA represent:
a. Knowledge, skill, ability
b. Knowledge, social, ability
c. Knowledge, skills, accountability
d. None of the above
a. Knowledge, skill, ability
Rating all employees in a narrow band in the middle of the rating scale refers to what error:
a. Rater bias
b. Recently effect
c. Strictness
d. Central tendency
d. Central tendency
An error that occurs when a rater’s values or prejudices distort the rating:
a. Central tendency
b. Leniency
c. Rater's bias
d. None of above
c. Rater's bias
Mentoring is:
a. Ongoing and spontaneous meetings between supervisors and their employees to discuss the employee’s career goals, and to give advice.
b. Assigning employees to various jobs.
c. A developmentally oriented relationship between two individuals that involves advising, networking, and supporting.
d. Demonstrating new skills to the mentored individual
c. A developmentally oriented relationship between two individuals that involves advising, networking, and supporting.
What do all four phases of the learning process have in common?
a. Reaction
b. Questioning
c. Results
d. Behavior
b. Questioning
Which of the following is not an example of a type of organization according to Miles and Snow Strategy Typology?
a. Reactor
b. Defender
c. Prospector
d. Collaborator
d. Collaborator

Miles and Snow organizational types:
-Defenders: Have narrow product-market domains.
Top managers are highly expert in their organization’s limited area of operation
but do not tend to search outside their narrow domains for new opportunities.
-Prospectors: Almost continually search for market opportunities, and regularly experiment with potential responses to emerging environmental trends.
Often are the creators of change and uncertainty to which their competitors must respond.
-Analyzers: Operate in two types of product-market domains, one relatively stable, the other changing.
In stable areas, they operate routinely and efficiently through use of formalized structures and processes.
In more turbulent areas, top managers watch their competitors closely for new ideas, and then rapidly adopt those which appear to be the most promising.
Which of the following correctly defines training?
a. Skills that apply to an employees current job
b. Preparation of the employee for future responsibility
c. A generalized, individual learning experience
d. An attempt to modify behavior
a. Skills that apply to an employees current job
A company trainer is assigned the task of creating an orientation handbook for newly hired employees. The copyright for the book belongs to
A. the public domain.
B. the company.
C. the writer.
D. both the company and the writer.
B. the company.

Work that is completed by an employee and is within the employee's regular duties does not require a written assignment. The employer automatically is the copyright owner.
What is the difference between training activities and developmental activities?
A. Training activities prepare employees for their present jobs; developmental activities prepare employees for future jobs.
B. Training activities focus on the acquisition of new skills; developmental activities correct skill deficiencies.
C. Training activities are broader in focus; developmental activities have a narrow focus.
D. There is no difference; the two terms are interchangeable.
A. Training activities prepare employees for their present jobs; developmental activities prepare employees for future jobs.

Training activities have a narrow focus and fill short-term needs, providing skills that employees will use immediately. Developmental skills have a long-term focus and prepare
employees to assume future responsibilities.
A learning organization is an organization that
A. encourages each department to function independently.
B. advocates internal rather than external networking.
C. takes responsibility for the learning of its employees.
D.manages change and adapts to its environment
D.manages change and adapts to its environment

Learning organizations encourage constant networking both internally and externally. Change is embraced and managed. and learning experiences alter the organization's behavior. In such an organization, employees are responsible for their own learning.
Which of the following statements about adult learners is true?
A. They are more open to new ideas and alternative options than are student learners.
B. They are not motivated by external incentives since self-satisfaction is most important.
C. They can assess their own progress and do not need feedback from the instructor.
D.They are inclined to refer to past experiences and want opportunities to share them.
D.They are inclined to refer to past experiences and want opportunities to share them.

Adult learners are experience-based and have a wide variety of experiences to share. However, as a result of these experiences, they may have formed habits and assumptions that make them less open to new ideas. While self-satisfaction is important, so are external rewards. Adult learners want to know how they are progressing and want feedback.
At a business supply company, account managers are responsible for collecting unpaid bills. The company decides to send account managers to a training course on bill collection. A successful account manager thinks that the course will be interesting but doubts that the company will' give account managers time for collection activities. In this case, the training is likely to be minimally successful because the account manager
A. seems unmotivated to learn new skills.
B. lacks the ability to learn new skills.
C. does not see how the training relates to the job.
D. doubts that the company will reinforce the learning.
D. doubts that the company will reinforce the learning.

The account manager seems interested in learning, and, since he is a successful manager, we assume that he is capable of learning collections skills. Although the manager understands why such a skill is desirable, there is a perception that the company may not actually support the use ofthe skill. This uncertainty will lessen the effectiveness ofthe training.
Which of the following learning curves describes how most routine tasks are learned?
A. Plateau
B. S-shaped
C. Increasing returns
D. Decreasing returns
D. Decreasing returns

Routine tasks are learned rapidly at first, and then the rate of improvement slows. Learning to use a computer mouse is an example.
Which of the following learning curves is typically associated with complex tasks such as problem solving?
A. Plateau
B. S-shaped
C. Increasing returns
D. Decreasing returns
B. S-shaped

An S-shaped curve is a combination of increasing and decreasing returns and is common when a trainee learns a difficult task that also requires insight. Learning may be slow at the onset and may then steadily increase as the process becomes more familiar. Learning to diagnose and repair a piece of equipment is an example.
Which of the following learning curves illustrates how a trainee learns the basics of a new, complex skill?
A. Plateau
B. S-shaped
C. Increasing returns
D. Decreasing returns
C. Increasing returns

The beginning of the curve is slow while the trainee learns the basics. Then performance takes off as skills and knowledge are acquired..
A mechanic is sent to an emissions school to learn the latest trouble-shooting techniques. The goal of the training is to prepare lead mechanics to train other SllOP mechanics. The training must be focused at what level in order to accomplish this goal?
A. Analysis
B. Application
C. Evaluation
D. Synthesis
D. Synthesis

Synthesis is the level at which a person can respond to new situations, trouble-shoot problems, and train others.
At which level of cognitive learning is an employee able to make judgments as to which manufacturing process produces better results?
A. Application
B. Analysis
C. Evaluation
D. Synthesis
C. Evaluation

At the evaluation level, a trainee can make judgments about which process, product, or solution is better than another.
Vroom's expectancy theory states that
A. employees dislike rigid controls and want to accomplish something.
B. employees' effort is related to the likelihood of perceived success.
C. employees work to meet their physical and social needs.
D. employees are likely to quit their jobs if treated unfairly.
B. employees' effort is related to the likelihood of perceived success.

Vroom's theory is based on a person's belief that a certain level of effort will lead to the expected result. A describes McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y; C describes Maslow's hierarchy-of-needs theory; and D describes the equity theory.
Which of the following is an example of reinforcement according to a fixed ratio?
A. Monthly paycheck
B. Occasional praise
C. Sales commission
D. Yearly review
C. Sales commission

Sales commission is a fixed-ratio reinforcer. The reinforcement is provided after a specific number of responses. Commission is linked to dollars sold, thus establishing a fixed ratio. A monthly paycheck or a yearly review is a fixed-interval reinforcer, given after a specific interval of time passes. Occasional praise is a variable-ratio reinforcer, given after a random number ofresponses.
Gaps between actual and desired performance are best identified in which phase of the ADDIE process?
A. Development
B. Design
C. Assessment
D. Evaluation
C. Assessment

Training gaps are best identified during the assessment phase of training. The design and development ofthe training program and evaluation tools are based on the performance gap analysis.
Which ofthe following is true of training needs assessments?
A. They are concerned with employee skill gaps, not attitudes.
B. They can be eliminated if management knows what training is needed.
C. They serve as base line for evaluating training effectiveness.
D. They do not consider the conditions under which training is conducted.
C. They serve as base line for evaluating training effectiveness.

An effective needs assessment allows a company to both design and evaluate a training program against the specific needs uncovered. A good needs assessment considers employee skills and attitudes as well as conditions under which training will be delivered. Assumptions about what training is needed should be checked to avoid the risk of providing too much or too little training.
Which ofthe following statements about an organizational needs assessment is true?
A. It uses employee interviews to determine training needs.
B. It identifies,how well individuals perform their jobs.
C. It indicates gaps between job requirements and job performance.
D. It identifies the impact of change on future training.
D. It identifies the impact of change on future training

An organizational analysis is concerned with the big picture. It identifies the skills, knowledge, and abilities employees will need in the fume as the organization and their jobs change. A and B are examples ofindividual analysis, which focuses on individual employees and how well each performs his/her job. C is an example of task analysis, which starts with job descriptions and specifications that provide information on expected performance. Gaps between job requirements and performance indicate training needs.
I. A pharmaceutical company is undertaking a joint venture that enables it to sell a new drug. The Company is on a tight time frame and needs to provide training for 150 sales representatives located throughout the U.S.

Given the company's time constraints, which needs assessment method would best determine the training that sales representatives need?
A. Tests
B. Observation
C. Advisory committee
D. Assessment center
C. Advisory committee

Because the company is on a tight time frame. they need to speed the assessment process. Advisory committees are made up of individuals who can represent the needs of the target audience. Input from the committee can be gathered very simply and inexpensively.
II. A pharmaceutical company is undertaking a joint venture that enables it to sell a new drug. The Company is on a tight time frame and needs to provide training for 150 sales representatives located throughout the U.S.

Which ofthe following needs assessment methods should the company use to create the sales representatives' buy-in?
A. Questionnaire
B. Phone interviews
C. Assessment center
D. Observation
B. Phone interviews

Considering that time is an issue and that sales representatives are geographically dispersed. phone interviews will be most effective. Interviews are most useful in that they can uncover attitudes and allow for discussion of problems and possible solutions. This would not occur with a questionnaire. The tight time frame rules out observation and assessment centers.
I. The training director for a company that wants to provide training for its 30 customer service representatives wants to undertake a needs analysis.

What is the best way to gather information about customer service problems and solutions since the representatives are located at headquarters?
A. Review employee records to define past customer service problems.
B. Form an advisory committee consisting ofcustomer service, training, and operations
managers.
C. Ask customer service representatives to fill out questionnaires related to their training
needs.
D. Conduct a series of focus groups with customer service representatives.
D. Conduct a series of focus groups with customer service representatives.

Since all the customer service representatives are in a single location, it will be cost- and time-efficient to conduct focus groups with the target audience and hear from them directly.
II. The training director for a company that wants to provide training for its 30 customer service representatives wants to undertake a needs analysis.

Once the data has been gathered, the next step is to
A. report the needs that training can and cannot meet.
B. develop the objectives for the training program.
C. propose a series of solutions for customer service problems.
D. decide whether to develop or buy the training program.
A. report the needs that training can and cannot meet.

The next step is to sort through the findings and determine which needs can be addressed by training and which cannot. Based on this analysis, the other steps related to purchasing or developing a program can begin.
Which of the following statements about a good training objective is true?
A. It includes the consequences of not meeting the objective.
B. It states what a trainee will be able to do as a result of training.
C. It states the role that management will play in the training.
D. It includes directions for meeting the objective.
B. It states what a trainee will be able to do as a result of training.

A training objective defines the behavioral outcomes participants can expect from the training experience. The training is built around the objectives and provides the direction necessary to meet the objectives.
A company purchases new billing software that will be used by its customer service and accounting departments. Which ofthe following training methods will be MOST effective in training employees
to use the new system?
A. Reading and a PowerPoint presentation
B. Group discussion and structured exercises
C. Demonstration and structured exercises
D. Reading and case study
C. Demonstration and structured exercises

When learning new software, it is most important to see how the software works and practice using it. A demonstration of each of the software functions, followed by hands-on practice, is an effective way to teach employees the skills that are required on the job.
Which ofthe following is NOT a goal of orientation?
A. To provide remedial skills training
B. To establish relationships with coworkers
C. To understand company policies and procedures
D. To gain a feeling of belonging
A. To provide remedial skills training

The goal of orientation is to smooth the way for new employees, making them less likely to leave the organization during the first year. Orientation introduces people to the company's culture and policies and helps them fit into the organization. Orientation does not provide the specific skills training that people need to perform effectively on the job.
What is the MOST important reason for conducting an internal marketing campaign for a new training program?
A. It protects a company from charges of discrimination.
B. It makes HRD more visible to the organization.
C. It increases employee motivation to participate.
D. It increases the company's reputation in the marketplace.'
C. It increases employee motivation to participate.

The most important reason to market a program internally is to get participants excited about learning new content. Training will not be effective if participants are not motivated to attend. While internal marketing may make HRD more visible and shows that the company is making an effort to include all employees, this is not the primary message of the marketing. As the marketing is internal, it is not designed to enhance the reputation ofthe company.
Transfer of training refers to a trainee's ability to
A. teach others what they have learned.
B. evaluate the effectiveness of training.
C. pass a final exam at the end ofthe training session.
D. apply what they have learned on the job.
D. apply what they have learned on the job.

Transfer of training refers to effective and continuing on-the-job application of knowledge and skills gained during the learning experience.
A training specialist is able to show that training has decreased turnover by 10%. At what level has the training been evaluated?
A. Learning
B. Results
C. Reaction
D. Behavior
B. Results

At the results level, the effect of training on organizational goals is demonstrated. Results such as productivity, turnover, quality, time, and costs are concrete examples of training results. At the reaction level, trainees evaluate how well they liked the training experience. At the learning level, trainees are tested to determine howwell they.learned facts and concepts. At the behavior level, trainees are observed to determine whether they are using what they have learned on the job.
What is the difference between career management and career planning?
A. Career management focuses on the organization's needs; career planning focuses on the individual's needs.
B. Career management assesses career paths within the organization; career planning focuses on building a pool of workers qualified for specific assignments.
C. Career management assumes that employees are responsible for planning their own careers; career planning assumes that the company is responsible for planning employee careers.
D. Career management is based on communication between managers and employees; career planning is done by the employee alone.
A. Career management focuses on the organization's needs; career planning focuses on the individual's needs.

Career management focuses on the organization and concerns itself with identifying future staffing needs, matching organizational needs with individual abilities, and designing appropriate career development programs and paths. Career planning focuses on the individual, who assesses personal abilities and interests, evaluates career paths, and plans personal career goals.
Replacement planning is based on an organization's ability to
A. plan specific goals and assignments for individuals.
B. find candidates with development potential.
C. identify the best available candidate for a job.
D. test candidates' potential early in their careers.
C. identify the best available candidate for a job.

The key phrase for a job makes C the correct answer. Replacement planning focuses on finding a person who could move into a key job in the organization. Planning specific goals and assignments for individuals, fmding candidates with developmental potential, and testing candidates early in their careers are all hallmarks of succession planning.
A job design strategy that increases the variety of responsibilities but requires the same skill level is referred to as
A. job enlargement.
B. job enrichment.
C. job simplification.
D. job specialization.
A. job enlargement.

Job enlargement attempts to alleviate the boredom and low morale associated with excessive job simplification. It increases the number of tasks to be performed, expanding the scope ofthe job and allowing for more variety, but all of the tasks require the same skill level. Job enrichment, which is sometimes confused with job enlargement, increases the depth of a job by adding increased responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, and evaluation. It may improve morale but may not necessarily improve productivity. Job simplification and specialization generally reduce the number of tasks required of an employee.
The leadership theory that classifies leaders according to their concerns with people and tasks was developed by
A. Hersey-Blanchard.
B. Blake-Mouton.
C. Covey.
D. McClelland.
B. Blake-Mouton.

Blake-Mouton's theory suggests that the most effective leaders are equally
concerned with people and task to the maximum degree. Hersey-Blanchard's theory espouses situational leadership that requires a leader to change leadership styles based on a situation. To Covey, leadership deals with vision and the ability to keep the organization's mission in sight while producing results. McClelland focuses on the characteristics of people with high needs for achievement, therefore defming what type ofperson might become a leader.
Which leadership theory maintains that performance depends on the interaction between situation favorableness and leadership style?
A. Contingency
B. Trait
C. Behavioral
D. Situational
A. Contingency

The contingency theory suggests that group performance depends on the
interaction between leadership style and situation favorableness, which is determined by leader member relations, task structure, and position power.
Which of the following activities is typical of a transactional leader?
A. Provides vision to workers
B. Intervenes when standards are not met
C. Gives personal attention
D. Communicates high expectations
B. Intervenes when standards are not met

The transactional leader offers the promise of reward or the threat of discipline, depending upon the followers' performance of measurable tasks. Intervening when standards are not met fits this description. The other activities listed are transformational, intended to motivate and inspire employees.
What is the value of a strong corporate culture?
A. It makes maintenance of the status quo more likely.
B. It gives members an organizational identity.
C. It eliminates the need for a corporate ethics officer.
D. It makes it easier for employees to question corporate values.
B. It gives members an organizational identity.

A strong corporate culture usually provides a sense of identity for employees and a commonality of values and goals that leads to effective change management and problem solving. Stronger cultures are more open to change and usually outperform those organizations with weaker cultures. On the negative side, a strong corporate culture may prevent employees from expressing differences of opinion.
An organization is concerned that managers have too many employees reporting to them and too many employees who report to more than one manager, hindering efficiency and resulting in conflicting goals. Which type of OD strategy will address this problem?
A. Interpersonal
B. Technological
C. Structural
D. Process
C. Structural

Structural intervention strategies look at how the company is helped or hindered by its organizational structure. Interpersonal strategies deal with work relationships between employees, and technological (process) strategies focus on activities such as work process flow and coordination among departments.
Which of the following theorists defines quality as "fitness to use," which emphasizes the reliability of a product or service?
A. Juran
B. Deming
C. Crosby
D. Baldrige
A. Juran

Juran defines quality as "fitness to use."
An HR professional wants to use a diagram to represent the percent of turnover for each of the last five years. Which quality tool will be most effective for visualizing turnover trends?
A. Check sheet
B. Control chart
C. Histogram
D. Pareto chart
C. Histogram

A histogram uses a bar-graph chart to summarize key data. It works best for visualizing how change has occurred over time. The histogram makes it easy to see the data for each year and makes trends easy to spot.
Which of the following quality tools shows how each item contributes to the total effect and allows users to focus on the most important items?
A. Run chart
B. Control chart
C. Histogram
D. Pareto chart
D. Pareto chart

The Pareto chart allows users to focus on the most important problems or opportunities. For example, you might plot the types of errors commonly made on shipping orders. From your chart, you can determine which errors occur most frequently and concentrate on them.
Which of the following is a comparative appraisal method?
A. Checklist
B. Forced choice
C. Graphic scale
D. Forced distribution
D. Forced distribution

Forced distribution is an appraisal method in which the appraiser compares the performance of each employee with that of others. Employees are rated and placed at different points along a bell-shaped curve. The method requires some employees to be placed in the lowest section and some in the highest, regardless of performance. The other options-checklist, forced
choice, and graphic scale - are all simple appraisal methods that require the appraisers to mark an employee's performance on a designated form.
An interviewer believes that older workers are more difficult to train and make more mistakes than younger workers. This form of performance appraisal error is
A. deficiency.
B. contamination.
C. bias.
D. conflict.
C. bias.

Bias occurs when an appraiser's values, beliefs, or prejudices distort ratings. For example, a manager may believe that female employees with young children should not work outside the home and will rate employees in this situation more critically.
An employee who is extremely good at answering customer questions on technical software is not good at completing paperwork or working with fellow employees. n spite ofthis, the employee is
rated highly in all performance categories. What performance appraisal error has occurred?
A. Recency
B. Halo effect
C. Bias
D. Leniency
B. Halo effect

The halo effect occurs when an employee's excellent performance in one area causes the appraiser to also give the employee high ratings in all other areas.
A manager wants to introduce new changes in his organization. However he experiences a lot of resistance from employees at every level of the organization from management to line workers to the proposed changes that must be placed into effect immediately to ensure the organization continues successfully. Which of the following alternatives to implementing the change is NOT a good solution for overcoming the employee resistance?

A. He uses force by power
B. He offers reward for change
C. He educates about the merits of change
D. He takes his employee for dinner and bribes him
E. He bargains with the employee for changes
D. He takes his employee for dinner and bribes him

EXPLANATION: The manager may use his power to implement the desired changes, offer rewards for change, and orient people about the changes. Dining with employees and offering bribes is not a good solution to the problem. This alternative is not ethical as well.
An employee training and development program which is designed to help the employee get the most out of it has the best results in the long term growth of any organization. Human resources is to play a significant role in the development of this training program. Out of the following factors which factor is the MOST IMPORTANT in designing of a training program?

A. Defining outcomes
B. Hiring trainees
C. Recruiting trainees
D. Evaluating the progress of trainees
E. Correcting trainees problems
A. Defining outcomes

EXPLANATION: Defining outcomes of a training program is most important in the designing phase. Do not consider hiring, recruiting and evaluating procedures at this stage.
An Information Technology company is testing a new training program which involves lectures, demonstrations, reading sessions, group discussion, role play, and case studies. The teachers must ensure every one of the employees who attends the training session understands and can quickly implement the information provided. Which one of the statements may apply to this situation?

A. The trainer must employ only one of the above learning methods.
B. The trainer must employ all of the above learning methods.
C. The trainer must employ only two of the above learning methods.
D. The trainer can employ the learning methods which are most suitable for his training program.
E. The trainer should only implement group discussion method.
D. The trainer can employ the learning methods which are most suitable for his training program.

EXPLANATION: A typical training program may include all or some of the above learning methods. Each program is unique and some trainers prefer to employ some methods more than others.
A manager may choose to have a larger group of new employee trainees or a smaller group. He has worked carefully with the HR department to coordinate employees to all meet for an in office, lecture style training program. If he chooses to train a larger group in an effort to save time and money for the organization, which of the following statements is true?

A. Classrooms must be used to accommodate a large group to be trained.
B. Small rooms can be used to accommodate a large group to be trained.
C. Office space of each employee can be used to accommodate a large group to be trained.
D. The manager's office can be used to accommodate a large group to be trained.
E. It does not matter where the training program is held.
A. Classrooms must be used to accommodate a large group to be trained.

EXPLANATION: A large group can be trained very well in a classroom like setting. Small rooms, employees' office cubicles, and the manager's office are not the right locations for training of employees.
A classroom-based program , led through discussion, role play, or training videos in conjunction with discussion work best when teaching complicated ideas or methods of interacting with other people. Sexual harassment training, leadership training, sales training, interview training, and other types of real world interactions are best suited for a classroom training environment using training videos as a supporting resource. Which of the statements does not portray the benefits of classroom training?

A. Classrooms can accommodate a large number of trainees.
B. Classrooms provide formal learning environments.
C. Classrooms are well equipped for training purposes.
D. Classrooms allow little interaction among trainees.
E. Classrooms reinforce learning because employees are reminded of schooling environment.
D. Classrooms allow little interaction among trainees.

EXPLANATION: While classroom based training programs are very effective, they do not allow a high level of interactive learning in trainees due to a large space and formal setting.
A manager wants to promote group interaction in the training session that he is conducting. Lack of accountability of individuals within a group, off-task conversations, and employees who try to dominate the discussion are just some of the potential problems surrounding group interactions. Which of the following learning methods involves maximum group interaction among participants in a training program?

A. Orientations
B. Lectures
C. Case studies
D. Group Discussions
E. Individual Employee Focus
D. Group Discussions

EXPLANATION: Group discussions promote maximum interaction among participants.
Which of the following learning methods DOES NOT promote one-to-one interaction among participants in a training program? The training program is informing employees of a new safety measure that must be put into place, complete understanding by employees is vital. A good one-on-one session is when trainers focus more on trainees than on how they are conveying the information.

A. Role-playing
B. Case studies
C. Group Discussions
D. Lectures
E. Learn by Doing
D. Lectures

EXPLANATION: Many learning methods promote one-to-one interaction among participants in a training program. However in a lecture setting there is no such interaction.
Many of today's leaders in both the private and public sectors are finding that they are experiencing rapid change and reorganization, accompanied by shifting priorities that lead to new organizational goals and objectives. Which of the following describes the organization development process?

A. It looks at the values of the organization, external environment, organization behavior reactions
B. It supports the improvement of workplace performance by effectively managing change and providing the ability to proactively address these issues
C. It promotes the performance of the organization planned approach
D. It allows acceptance of change
E. It shifts the responsibility of change from the employee to management
B. It supports the improvement of workplace performance by effectively managing change and providing the ability to proactively address these issues

EXPLANATION: Organization development - performance of organization planned approach. Needs and interaction of employees
Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts. Which of these is a characteristic of an adaptive organization?

A. It is able to sense changes in signals from its environment (both internal and external) and adapt accordingly
B. It is able to sense changes in signals from its environment (both internal and external) and bud does not adapt
C. It is unable to sense changes in signals from its environment (both internal and external) but adapts anyway
D. It is able to sense changes in signals from its internal environment and adapt accordingly
E. It is static in nature but has lasted the test of time, it works best for the current organization and has been for many years.
A. It is able to sense changes in signals from its environment (both internal and external) and adapt accordingly

EXPLANATION: Learning by adapting - the culture and vision lead the organization, communication through all channels, track performance, adaptable