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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Law of Conservation of Mass?
Matter is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes.
Law of Definate Proportions?
A chemical compound contains the same elements in excactly the same proportions by mass reagardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound.
Law of Multiple Proportions?
If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, the the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.
__________ supplied evidence of the existence of electrons, which are negatively charged subatomic particles that have relatively little mass.
Cathode-ray tubes
Rutherford found evidence for the exsistence of the atomic nucleus by bombarding goild foil with a beam of _______ charged particles.
Atomic nuclei are composed of protons which have an electric charge of ______, and (in all but one case) neutrons, which have and electric charge of _______.
+1, 0
The atomich number of an element is equal to the number of ______ of an atom of that element.
What is the mass number equal to?
The total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nuceleus of an atom of that element.
The relative atomic mass unit (amu) is based on the carbon-12 atom and is a convenient unit for measuring the mass of atoms. What does it equal?
1.660 540 x 10^-24 g
How is average atomic mass of an element found?
By calculating the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element.
Avogadro's number is equal to what?
6.022 x 10^23
A sample that contains a number of ________s equal to Avogadro's number contains a mole of those ________s.
particle, particle
Why is Dalton's Atomic Theory a theory, and Democritus' only an idea?
Dalton's was testible.
Sum up Dalton's Atomic Theory. (5 Sentences)
1) All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
2) Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties.
3) Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.
4) Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
5) In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, seperated, or rearranged.
Modern Atomic Theory disproves pieces of Dalton's Theory. Name one.
Atoms can be divided.
Because atoms are electrically neutrak, they must contain a _________ charge to balence the _________ electrons.
positive, negative
Who discovered the atomic nuceleus and how?
Rutherford, by his famous gold foil experiment.
What are nuclear forces?
Short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces that hold their nuclear particles together.
What is an atom?
The smallest particle of an element that retains the same chemical properties of said element.
How was the electron discovered?
When Thompson was investigating the relationship between electricity and matter, he concluded that all cathode rays are composed of identical negatively charged particles, which were named electrons.
What is the atomic number of an element?
The number of protons of each atom of that element.
What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element that have different masses.
What is the mass number?
The total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope.
What is a nuclide?
A general term for a specific isotope of an element?
What is the nuclear symbol, and number of protons & electrons & neutrons of Hydrogen-1.
Nuclear symbol = 1/1H
Protons = 1
Electrons = 1
Neutrons = 0
What is the nuclear symbol, and number of protons & electrons & neutrons of Helium-3.
Nuclear symbol = 3/2He
Protons = 2
Electrons = 2
Neutrons = 2
How would you solve the following problem? : "How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are there in an atom of chlorine-37?"
Given: name and mass number.
Unknown: numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons.


Atomic # = # of protons + # of electrons.
Mass# = # of neutrons + # of protons.

So, the mass # is 37, right? PT says atomic # is 17. Let's plug it in!

37 (mass#) - 17 (atomic#) = 20 (neutrons).

17 protons & electrons. 20 neutrons.
The atomic number is the number of what of an element?
What happens to the atomic masses as the elements in the periodic table increase?
Protons increases, Electrons increases, and the number of atoms in 1 mol stay the same.
List the number of protions, neutrons, and electrions in zinc-66.
30 Protons
36 Neutrons
30 Electrons
Molar mass is...?
Atomic mass, found on periodic table.
Give an example of a physical process that illustrates the law of conservation of mass.
If water evaporates to vapor, it still has mass.
In cathode-ray tubes, the cathode ray is emitted from the negative electrode, which is called the _______.
Smallest unit of an element that can exsist alone.
+ly charged particle found in the nucleus?
Nuclear particle that has no charge?
What two subatomic particles are least massive and most massive?
Electron and Neutron.
Is an atom positively charged, negatively charged, or neutral?
Depends on the number of electrons.
Where are the protons and neutrons in an atom?
Where are electrons in atoms?
Electron Cloud.