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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

fat sources

brain, skeleton, adipose

essential fat in men


essential fat in women


storage fat in men


storage fat in women


fat free mass

water, protein, minerals

what is LBM?

lean body mass, muscle!

LBM in men vs women

great in men!

LBM increases with what?


major determinant of RMR


white adipose tissue

energy reserved fir triglycerides, cushion, insulates to preserve heat

brown adipose tissue

rapid energy source for infants, extensive vascularization for energy and heat production

location of lots of mitochondria

brown adipose tissue! (keep warm)

function of brown adipose tissue

takes up fat and burns it


mature fat cell

fill capacity of adipocyte



increase in number of cells


increased fat cell size up to 1000x

wt loss required to decrease fat cell size


protein and CHO converted to fat by what


semivolatile organic compounds

toxins, chemicals, pesticides

when does the liver store fat

when it becomes overwhelmed

lipoprotein lipase

moves lipid from blood into adipocyte

greatly effects LPL


LPL increases when

during period of weight gain

% RMR of total energy expenditure


activity thermogenesis

most variable

non-exercise activity

stand for 2.5 hrs per day to reverse obesity

(fidgety people)

short term body wt regulation

1. satiety (satisfaction)

2. hunger

3. appetite

long term body wt regulation

feedback mechanism where signal from adipose tissue is released when normal body composition is disturbed


protein messangers


"go" hinger pangs


"stop" signals fullness


controls amount of glucose in the blood moving it into cells for energy


made by fat cells and helps the body respond better to insulin by increasing metabolism

never dealing with hunger

vagus nerve

set point theory

a weight regulating mechanism, located in the hypothalamus of the brain, regulates how much the body should weigh.

-maintains fat body needs

% adults overweight


% adults obese


children overweight

1/3 ages 2-19

factors contributing to obesity

-heredity (50-70%)

-notable genes


foods promoting obesity

-trans fat

-processed fat

foods inhibiting obesity

-omega 3



sleep effects obesity

shortened sleep alters endocrine regulation of hunger and appetite

stress effects obesity

cortisol increases, increases storage levels


chemical compounds foreign to the body that disrupts normal metabolism of lipids

BMI overweight


BMI obese


BMI morbidly overweight


best assessment

waist circumference

waist circumference female and male

>40 men >35 female

BF %

20-35% males

25-32% females

about of wt to lose

1-2 / week

decrease kcals per day


BMI needs drugs for wt loss

>30 or >27 with risk factors

how do wt loss drugs work

-reduce appetite

-reduce fat absorbance

0increase energy expenditure

sibutramine (Meridia)

increase metabolic rate, increase satienty and reduce hunger, fairly effective. caution of hypternsion

Orlistat (Xenical. Alli)

reduce fat absorption

BMI for bariatric surgery

>40 or >35 with cormobilities

surgery for those who eat large (not snackers)

adjustable gastric band

capacity of stomach for adjustable gastric band


removes 80% of stomach where 90% of ghrelin is made

vertical band gastroplasty surgery


small portion of stomach connected directly to the jejunum (limiting whats absorbed)

Bilipancreactic Diversion-Duodenal Switch

stomach attached to last 250cm of SI (ileum)

(have to take multivitamin everyday)

common post-op micronutrient def.


-vitamin B12

-folic acid-iron

-Ca and vit D

-Vit A, E, K and Zinc


Thiamin def symptoms

burning feet, neuropathy, vomiting

Vitamin B12 def symptoms

-numbness and tingling in fingers

-low Hgb, high MCV and MCH

folic acid def symptoms

fatigue. weakness. headache. diff concentrating, diarrhea, red painful tongue

iron def symptoms

craving ice, non-food materials, pallor, short breath spoon shaped nails

diabetes def

high blood glucose concentrations as a result of defects of insulin secretion or action

labs for glu intolerance

2 hrs post glu 140-199 mg/dL

labs for impaired fasting glucose

110-125 mg/dL

usually not obese

Type 1

excessive thirst and hunger

type 1

frequent urination

type 1

sig wt loss

type 1

destruction of pancreatic beta cells = insulin def

type 1

hyperglycemia, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance

type 1

5% of all DM

type 1

common age for type 1


2 forms of type 1

1. immune mediated DM

2. Idiopathic Type 1 DM

immune mediated DM

autoimmune destruction of beta cells

idopathic type 1 DM

unknown etiology

90-95% cases of DM

type 2

develops gradually

type 2

type 2 BMI risk factor


ethnicity common for type 2

hispanic, native american, asian, asian american

results from combination of

-insulin resistance

-damaged beta cells

-dec insulin production overtime

type 2

gestational diabetes

pregnant diabetes

% diabetes in pregnancies


trimester diagnoses of gestational

2nd or 3rd

cause of gestational diabetes

insulin antagonist hormone levels rise and insulin resistance occurs

who should be screened for dm?

>45, repeat every 3 years

s/s of insulin resistance

gray brown spots on skin

diabetes treatment goals

-FPG <100

-hemoglobin A1c <7%

blood pressure for diabetes

< 130/80

diabetic ketoacidosis

body depends on fat for energy

ketones form and spill into urine --> acidosis

s/s of diabetic ketoacidosis

polyuria, polydipsia, hyperventilation, dehydration

-lead to coma and death

treatment for DKA

insulin, fluid and electrolyte replacement

fasting hyperglycemia

lack of enough insulin for all night

-3am check

hyperosmolar hyperglycemia state

extremely high BG 600-2000


delayed or irregular contractions of the GI tract

insulin resistance

normal insulin production fails to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells

insulin resistance s/s



-wt gain

-inc BP

-inc TG


insulin resistance treatment

-exercise and wt loss


sulfonlyunrea target


sulfonlyunrea action

stimulate insulin secretion

meglitinides target


meglitinides action

increase insulin secretion in presence of glucose

biguanides target


biguanides action

reduce liver glucose production, enhance insulin sensitivity, inc intestinal glucose absorption

thiazolidinediones target

muscle, fat, liver

thiazolidinediones action

dec insulin resistance, suppress glucose production in liver

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors target

small intestines

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors action

reduce CHO metabolism, delays glucose absorption by 1/3

glucovance-sulfonlyurea/ biguanide

stimulate insulin secretion/ dec hepatic glucose

avabdamet-TZD/ biguanide

insulin sensitizer / dec hepatic glucose

metaglip-sulfonylurea/ biguanide

stimulate insulin secretion/ dec hepatic glucose

time for rapid acting


time for short acting

4-6 hr

time for intermediate acting


time for long acting

12 hr

carbohydrate / activity

15g for every 30-60 min

exercise prescription

150min min /week

1 serving size CHO

15 g