• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

127 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Age-based microculture
term that describes the finding that people of the same age end up sharing many of the same values and develop similar consumer preferences
used to describe immigrants as they face decisions and form preferences based on their old or new cultures
Cognitive structuring
term that refers to the reliance on schema-based heuristics in making decisions
a group of people who have lived the same major experiences in their lives
Demographic analysis
a profile of a consumer group based on their demographics
situation in which consumers choose membership in microcultures in an effort to stand out or define themselves from the crowd
mental and cognitive structures through which individuals perceive the world based largely on their standing in a social class
the finding that most marriages comprise people from similar classes
a group of people who share similar values and tastes that are subsumed within a larger culture
Role conflict
a situation involving conflicting expectations based on cultural role expectations
Sex roles
societal expectations for men and women among members of a cultural group
Social class
a culturally defined group to which a consumer belongs based on resources like prestige, income, occupation,
and education
Social stratification
the division of society into classes that have unequal access to scarce and valuable resources
Status symbols
products or objects that are used to signal one's place in society
a situation in which consumers are marked in some way that indicated their place in society
World teen culture
speculation that teenagers around the world are more similar to each other than to people from other generations in the same culture
Acquisitional shopping
activities oriented toward a specific, intended purchase or purchases
consumers with a high capacity to self-regulate their behavior
ad buys that include a schedule that runs the advertisement primarily at times when customers will be most receptive to the message
Affective quality
retail positioning that emphasizes a unique environment, exciting decor, friendly employees, and, in general, the feelings experienced in a retail place
Antecedent conditions
situational characteristics that a consumer brings to information processing
emotional nature of an environment or the feelings created by the total aura of physical attributes that comprise a physical environment
Background music
music played below the audible threshold that would make it the center of attention
Circadian cycle
rhythm (level of energy) of the human body that varies with the time of day
how consistent the elements of an environment are with one another
Consumer self-regulation
tendency for consumers to inhibit outside, or situational, influences from interfering with shopping inentions
density of people and objects within a given space
Epistemic shopping
activities oriented toward acquiring knowledge about products
Experiential shopping
recreationally oriented activities designed to provide interest, excitement, relaxation, fun, social interaction, or some other desired feeling
how appropriate the elements of a given environment are
Foreground music
music that becomes the focal point of attention and can have strong effects on a consumer's willingness to approach or avoid an environment
Functional quality
retail positioning that emphasizes tangible things like a wide selection of goods, low prices, guarantees, and knowledgeable employees
Hedonic shopping value
worth of a shopping activity because the time spent doing the activity itself is personally gratifying
Impulsive consumption
consumption acts characterized by spontaneity, a diminished regard for consequences, and a need for self-fulfillment
Impulsive shopping
spontaneous activities characterized by a diminished regard for consequences, spontaneity, and a desire for immediate self-fulfillment
personality trait that represents how sensitive a consumer is to immediate rewards
Mental budgeting
memory accounting for recent spending
Nonlinear effect
a plot of an effect that does not make a straight line
refers to humans' physical and psychological processing of smells
shopping in a city or town to which consumers must travel rather than in their own hometowns
Personal Shopping Value (PSV)
overall subjective worth of shopping activity considering all associated costs and benefits
Retail personality
way a retail store is defined in the mind of a shopper based on the combination of functional and affective qualities
Reversal theory
tries to explain how environmental elements can lead to near 180-degree changes in shopping orientation
regularly occurring conditions that vary with the time of year
physical environment in which consumer services are performed
set of value-producing consumer activities that directly increase the likelihood that something will be purchased
Social comparison
a naturally occurring mental personal comparison of the self with a target individual within the environment
Source attractiveness
the degree to which a source's physical appearance matches a prototype for beauty and elicits a favorable or desirous response
consumers with a low capacity to self-regulate their behavior
Temporal factors
situational characteristics related to time
Time pressure
urgency to act based on some real or self-imposed deadline
Unplanned shopping
shopping activity that shares some, but not all, characteristics of truly impulsive consumer behavior; being characterized by situational memory, a utilitarian orientation, and feelings of spontaneity
Utilitarian shopping value
worth obtained because some shopping task or job is completed successfully
Actual state
consumer's perceived current state
Awareness set
set of alternatives of which a consumer is aware
Behavioral influence decision-making perspective
assumes many consumer decisions are actually learned responses to environmental influences
Brand inertia
what occurs when a consumer simply buys a product repeatedly without any real attachement
Brand loyalty
deeply held commitment to rebuy a product or service regardless of situational influences that could lead to switching behavior
Consideration set
alternatives that are considered acceptable for further consideration in decision making
Consumer search behavior
behaviors that consumers engage in as they seek information that can be used to satisfy needs
Desired state
perceived state for which a consumer strives
Experiential decision-making perspective
assumes consumers often make purchases and reach decisions based on the affect, or feeling, attached to the product or behavior under consideration
Extended decision making
consumers move diligently through various problem-solving activities in search of the best information that will help them reach a decision
External search
gathering of information from sources external to the consumer such as friends, family, salespeople, advertising, independent research reports, and the Internet
Habitual decision making
consumers generally do not seek information at all when a problem is recognized and select a product based on habit
Inept set
alternative in the awareness set that are deemed to be unacceptable for further consideration
Inert set
alternatives in the awareness set about which consumers are indifferent or do not hold strong feelings
Information overload
situation in which consumers are presented with so much information that they cannot assimilate the variety of information presented
Internal search
retrieval of knowledge stored in memory about products, services, and experiences
Limited decision making
consumers search very little for information and often reach decisions based largely on prior beliefs about products and their attributes
Ongoing search
search effort that is not necessarily focused on an upcoming purchase or decision but rather on staying up to date on the topic
Perceived risk
perception of the negative consequences that are likely to result from a course of action and the uncertainty of which course of action is best to take
Prepurchase search
search effort aimed at finding information to solve an immediate problem
information that signals the amount of potential value contained in a product
perceived overall goodness or badness of some product
Rational decision-making persepctive
assumes consumers diligently gather information about purchases, carefully compare various brands of products on salient attributes, and make informed decisions regarding what brand to buy
practice of using decision-making shortcuts to arrive at satisfactory, rather than optimal, decisions
Search regreat
negative emotions that come from failed search processes
Universal set
total collection of all possible solutions to a consumer problem
Attribution theory
theory that proposes that consumers look for the cause of particular consumption experience when arriving at satisfaction judgments
is the degree to which an object, person, or experience seems real, genuine, unique, and part of history or tradition
Cognitive dissonance
an uncomfortable feeling that occurs when a consumer has lingering doubts about a decision that has occurred
Confirmatory bias
tendency for expectations to guide performance perceptions
Consumer dissatisfaction
mild, negative affective reaction resulting from an unfavorable appraisal of a consumption outcome
Consumer refuse
any packaging that is no longer necessary for consumption to take place or, in some cases, the actual good that is no longer providing value to the consumer
Consumer satisfaction
mild, positive emotion resulting from a favorable appraisal of a consumption outcome
Consumption frequency
number of times a product or service is consumed in a given period of time
level of a particular benefit that will lead to a valued end state
Distributive fairness
refers to the way a consumer judges the outcomes of an exchange
Durable goods
goods that are usually consumed over a long period of time
Equity theory
theory that proposes the people compare their own level of inputs and outcome to those of another party in an exchangey
Expectancy/disconfirmation theory
satisfaction formation theory that proposes that consumers use expectations as a benchmark against which performance perceptions are judged
preconsumption beliefs of what will occur during an exchange and consumption of a product
a fundamental emotion evoked by positive, anticipatory appraisals that signal uncertainty about a potentially positive outcome
Interactional fairness
captures how fairly a consumer believes he or she was treated when dealing with service personnel in resolving some issue
Left skewed
distribution of responses consistent with most respondents choosing responses so the distribution is clustered toward the positive end of the scale
Meaning transference
process through which cultural meaning is transferred to a product and onto the consumer
Negative disconfirmation
according to the expectancy/disconfirmation approach, a perceived state wherein performance perceptions fall short of expectations
Nondurable goods
goods that are usually consumed quickly
consumers possessing high levels of lifestyle trait leading to a strong tendency toward retaining consumption-related possesions
Positive disconfirmation
according to the expectancy/disconfirmation approach, a perceived state wherein performance perceptions exceed expectations
Self-perception theory
theory that states that consumers are motivated to act in accordance with their attitudes and behaviors
Service quality
overall goodness or badness of a service experience, which is often measured by SERVQUAL
way of measuring service quality that captures consumers' disconfirmation of service expectations
Top-line performance
a business term referring to sales growth (sales being at the top of an earnings statement)
Antiloyal consumers
consumers who will do everything possible to avoid doing business with a particular marketer
Competitive intensity
number of firms competing for business within a specific category
Complaining behavior
action that occurs when a consumer actively seeks out someone (supervisor, service provider, etc.) to share an opinion with regarding a negative consumption event
Consumer inertia
situation in which a consumer tends to continue a pattern of behavior until some stronger force motivates him or her to change
Critical incident
exchange between consumers and business that the consumer view as unusually negative with implications for the relationship
Customer commitment
sense of attachment, dedication, and identification
Customer share
portion of resources allocated to one brand from among the set of competing brands
Financial switching costs
total economic resources that must be spent or invested as a consumer learns how to obtain value from a new product choice
Loyalty card/program
device that keeps track of the amount of purchasing a consumer has had with a given marketer once some level is reached
Negative public publicity
action that occurs when negative WOM spreads on a relatively large scale, possibly even involving media coverage
Negative word-of-mouth
(negative WOM) action that takes place when consumers pass on negative information about a company from one to another
Positive WOM
action that occurs when consumers spread information from one to another about positive consumption experiences with companies
Procedural justice
an equity-based cognition representing the extent that consumers believe the processes involved in processing a transaction, performing a service, or handling any complaint are fair
Procedural switching costs
low time and effort
Rancorous revenege
is when a consumer yells, insults, and makes a public scene in an effort to harm the business in response to an unsatisfactory experience
Relational switching cost
emotional and psychological consequences of changing from one brand/retailer/service provider to another
Relationship quality
degree of connectedness between a consumer and a retailer
Retaliatory revenege
consumer becomes violent with employees and/or tries to vandalize a business in response to an unsatisfactory experience
Share of wallet
customer share
times when a consumer chooses a competing choice, rather than the previously purchased choice, on the next purchase occasion
Switching costs
costs associated with changing from one choice (brand/retailer/service provider) to another
Third-party endorsement
one form of publicity in which an ostensibly objective outsider (neither the customer nor the business) provides publicly available purchase recommendations or evalutations