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6 Cards in this Set

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evasion type= genetic variation

genetic variation within some species of pathogens prevents effective long term immunity; ex. step pneumoniae with more than 90 serotypes; why would you conjugate a polysaccharide vaccine with a peptide? so that T cells can recognize it too (polysaccharide=B cells)

evasion type= mutation (antigenic drift) and reassortment (antigenic switch)

influenzavirus escapes neutralizing antibodies; antigenic drift= outbreaks, epidemics; antigenic shift= pandemics

evasion type= gene rearrangment

change surface antigens; trypanosomes use gene rearrangement to change their surface antigens

evasion type= hiding

herpesviruses persist in human hosts; HSV1, HSV2, VZV latent in neural ganglia; EBV in latent B cells

subversion of the immune system

inhibit humoral immunity= virus encoded Fc and complement receptors (HSV, CMV); inhibit inflammatory response= virus encoded soluble cytokine receptors prevent cytokine molecules used by immune cells (EBV); block antigen processing and presentation= inhibition of MHC class I molecule peptide loading and/or surface presentation (HSV, CMV); immunosuppression of host= virus encoded homolog of IL-10 (EBV), KILL CD4+ lymphocytes (HIV), suppress macrophage function (morbillivirus (measles infection))

defective respiratory burst in phagocytes

chronic granulomatous disease