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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Globalization is the__________throughout the world, enabled by technological progress
integration of economies
Definition of Information Systems
Telecommunications networks
Primary MIS Functions
Evolution of Data
raw, unformatted information
data that is transformed to have a meaning
body of governing procedures used to organize or manipulate data
accumulated knowledge
Information Systems Primary 'Value Skills' of Knowledge Worker
technical, business, systems competency
Impact of Information Systems on Organization
1. the spread of technology
2. downsizing and outsourcing
3. increased career prospects and opportunities
Moore's Law
1.microprocessor and chip capacities double ever 18 months (through miniaturization)
2. as chips get smaller, speed and performance go up, computer cost and size comes down
3. but will need new semiconductor technologies, will hit limit by 2017
Trends in Information Technology
1. business process design=information technology design
2. location does not matter
3. IT is a major driver in business organization
4. IT does not secure long-term business advantage (requires constant adaptation and change to stay competitive)
5. link business objectives to technology initiatives
6. understand the reality of organizational resistance and inertia
Impact of Globalization
1. worldwide communication
2. collaboration without barriers
Friedman's "The World is Flat"
1. globalization 1.0, 2.0, 3.0
2. the global economic playing field has been leveled
3. competition is worldwide
4. few jobs or markets are constrained by geographic boundaries
Primary "Flatteners" that have shaped 21st Century (1-5)
1. fall of berlin wall - move from large centralized to small decentralized systems
2. netscape - fostered new services, dot.com boom, fiber backbone (collaborative technology development)
3. hardware/software interoperability - more systems and application work together
4. outsourcing - lower telecom costs allow leaner, more efficient processes from anywhere in the world
5. offshoring - global business operations seeking lower costs
Primary "Flatteners" that have shaped 21st Century(6-10)
6. uploading - users collaborating, distributing applications and knowledge for free (threatening established giants like Microsoft)
7. supply chain - creating more efficient, responsive, lower cost processes
8. insourcing - turning over internal operations to outside contractors
9. informing - huge knowledge and information now readily available to everyone
10. the steroids - convergence of media and wireless and internet technologies (PDAs, mobile computing, iPhone)
Challenges of Operating in Digital World
1. government regulations, restrictions, politics, oppression
2. geoeconomical - time zone differences, infrastructure issues with poorer, less developed nations
3. demographic - differences in education, industry expertise, availability of skilled workers, different wages
4. cultural - risk taking, language, work skills/habits, intellectual property concepts
Primary Types of E-commerce
Business to Consumer (amazon)
Business to Business (wal-mart ordering from suppliers)
Business to Employee (employees managing health-care benefits on-line)
Consumer to Consumer (one person from another on ebay)
Key Capabilities through E-Commerce
1. information dessemination ( global access)
2. integration (integration of information and processes, personalization)
3. mass customization
4. interactive communication (real-time, fast feedback from customers)
5. collaboration
6. transaction support ( lower costs, increased efficiency)
7. disintermediation ( by-pass ttraditional higher-cost channels and go direct to consumers)
Internet: A network of networks, compromised of:
1. computer and electronic devices
2. telecom infrastructure that connects them (copper, fiver, routers, microwave)
3. software, software tools, and common software protocols
4. widely accepted standards (can access from anywhere, anytime, on any system)
Extranet: Proprietary, restricted business applications operating over the internet
1. limited to those entities 'inside' the business chain
2. promote B2B transactions (e.g. EDI, web services)
Intranet: Private networks (internet based) that use Web technologies to support organizations and their supply chain
support internal and external processes and applications (e.g. internal training programs, efficient expense handling, supply chain collaboration projects)
Internet Trends
1. B2B has been a primary trend since late 90s
2. C2C now fastest growth (ebay)
3. social community applications exploding (facebook, myspace)
4. growth internet fraud
5. self-publishing, blogs
6. m-commerce (convergence of internet and wireless; doing business directly from smart phones, PDAs, online entertainment)
Threats to Ecommerce
1. terrorist surveillance measures
2. internet taxation and government regulation
3. industry disputes over data prioritization
4. government censorship ( e.g. China, North Korea)
5. employer monitoring of employees, employer liability
Decision Making Levels of an Organization
Operation Level
Managerial Level
Executive Level
Operation Level(Deff)
day to day, highly structures, recurring, repetitive tasks; interact daily with customers (high need to be automated) TPS
Managerial Level(Deff)
monitor and control operations, consolidate information for executive level; moderately comples and structures; implement business strategy MIS
Executive Level(Deff)
non-structured, complex, non-recurring decisions; long-term strategic issues EIS
Operation Level(Who, What, Why, IS)
Who - foreman or supervisor
What - automate routine and repetitive activities
Why - improve organizational efficiency
IS - Transaction Processing System (TPS)
Managerial Level(Who, What, Why, IS)
Who - Midlevel managers and functional managers
What - Automate the monitoring and controlling of operational activities
Why - improve organizational efficiency
IS - Management Information Systems (MIS)
Executive Level(Who, What, Why, IS)
Who - executive-level managers
What - Aggregate summaries of past organizational data and projections of the future
Why - improve organizational stratgey and planning
IS - Executive Information Systems (EIS)
Transactional Processing System (TPS)
1. process daily events and transactions
2. increase efficiency (automation, lower costs, higher speed and accuracy)
3. ex: payroll, order entry, inventory management
4. online processing (real time) vs batch processing (collected and processed later)
Management information System (MIS)
1. managerial level repotrs
2. support mid-level decision making
3. ex: sales forcasts, financial management and planning, production scheduling and planning
4. aggregation and summary
Executive Information System (EIS)
1. supports executive, strategic decision making; unstructured, nonrecurring events
2. highly aggregated information and summary
3. ex: long-term business planning, crisis management, major internal/external events
4. summary reports, trends, simulations (what if?); digital dashboard
Primary Organizational Information Systems
1. decision support system - supports decision making for recurring problems
2. intelligent systems - expert systems, neutral networks, intelligent agents
3. data mining
4. office automation systems (word processing, email, desktop applications)
5. collaboration systems - working as teams (video conferencing, groupware)
6. knowledge management systems
7. functional area information systems (focus on specific activities)
Business Process : System Development Process
Step 1: systems identification, selections and planning
Step 2: system analysis (business process re-engineering)
Step 3: system design
Step 4: system implementation
Business Process : Information Systems Development(Options)
1. external acquisition (buy existing package or hire 3rd party to develop)
2. build in-house
Business Process : Steps in Outsourcing Information Systems
1. system identification and planning
2. system analysis
3. development of a request for proposal
4. proposal evaluation
5. vendor selection
Business Process : Factors in End-User Development (in-house) - Pros & Cons
1. growing sophistication of users
2. actual future users of the system are the system's developers
3. application development may be faster
4. no need to rely on external entities
5. user may not be aware of important standards
6. need for adequate documentation
7. built-in error checking
8. testing
9. potential lack of continuity
Business Process : Factors in Outsourcing Information Systems Development - Pros & Cons
1. your IS solutions may be housed in their organizations
2. your applications may be run on their computers
3. the may develop systems to run on your existing computers (within your organization)
4. they may replace functions in your organization
Legacy Systems : existing, older IT platforms (problem)
1. information systems growing over time
2. lace of integration in existing systems (different computing platforms, difficult to integrate, data must be reentered from one system to another, same pieces of data stored in several versions)
Primary Functions of Enterprise Systems
1. internally focused systems - support decision making, business process and functions; add value to primary and support business activities
2. externally focused systems - coordinate business activities with customers, suppliers, and business partners
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system so that employees can make enterprise-wide decisions by viewing enterprise-wide information on all business operations
Primary Characteristics of ERP
1. ground up integration of business processes
2. a single application ties together multiple business functions
3. accounting, purchasing, HR
4. applies "best practices" to these processes
Primary Applications of ERP
1. supply chain management (SCM)
2. customer relationship management (CRM)
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
1. CRM is not just technology, but a strategy, process, and business goal that an organization must embrace on and enterprise-wide level
2. CRM can enable organizations to identify types of customers, design individual customer marketing campaigns, treat each customer as an individual, and understand customer buying behaviors
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
1. involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
Four Basic Components of SCM
1. supply chain strategy - strategy for managing all resources to meet customer demand
2. supply chain partners - partners throughout the supply chain that deliver finished products, raw materials, and services
3. supply chain operation - schedule for production activities
4. supply chain logistics - product deliver process