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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Ketamine is a good choice in cats, for treatment of pain caused by spaying.

True or False


The GOAL OF ANESTHETIST – provide adequate analgesia and sedation to allow the animal to move, eat and sleep without undue discomfort – particularly in first _________ hours.

12 hours

Why is a preemptive use of analgesics recommended?

Windup – the animal will have a chemical release of endorphins as an involuntary response to pain – so even if they are unaware of pain consciously (as when under anesthesia) the body will have a build up of these chemical mediators and then greater amounts of postoperative analgesia is required to control pain

Good for somatic pain, but not visceral pain


Reduces Fever


Good for both somatic and visceral pain


Slowly absorbed through skin


Not recommended in small animals


Pain may cause changes in physiologic parameters. What are they?

Increased Blood Pressure, Increased Heart Rate, Increased Respirations, Dilated Pupils,

Pale Mucous Membranes

Commonly used preanesthetic drugs do little for postoperative pain. True or False


The absence of pain - through the use of drugs or other modes of therapy.


Abrupt onset, usually short duration

Acute pain

Felt in a body part other than that in which the cause is situated

Refered pain

Skin, SQ tissue, muscle, bone & joints are primarily tansmitted by both A & C fibers

Somatic pain

internal organs - promarily transmitted by C fibers only

Visceral pain

Slow onset, much longer duration

Chronic pain

Dull, aching or throbbing pain that cannot be localized to an exact location

C fibers

Pain source can be localized to an exact site

A fibers

four things that cause attenuation?

Absorption, Reflection, Scattering, Refraction & Diffraction

Younger animals' bones usually have a darker image on nuclear scintigraphy. True or Flase


With respect to Nuclear Medicine, the safeguards for personal protection, such as time distance and shielding are even less than with ultrasound. True or False


Air is ....?


Which of the following would cause acoustic shadowing?


Images the biochemistry of the body rather than the anatomical structures


Used primarily for imaging central and peripheral nervous system diseases


Images with extraordinary detail of body and brain with exceptional sensitivity in soft tissue resolution


Poor resolution images, but provide unique information about specific organs

Nuclear Scintigraphy

The bending of the sound beam as it crosses areas of differing tissue densities

Refraction & Diffraction

Affects the brightness of the image and allows the sonographer to compensate for attenuation of the sound wave as it travels through tissues

Gain & Power

The number of cycles per unit of time; dictates the amount of detail or resolution of the ultrasound image


Progressive weakening of the sound wave as it passes through the tissues


Mode used primarily in cardiology to assess valve function, chamber size and wall thickness


Appears brighter (or whiter) than surrounding tissues; Greater echo reflection between two adjacent tissues


Sound converted into heat inside tissues causing loss of energy


Contains 1 crystal: It alternately sends sound waves and recieves echoes

Pulse wave transducer

The redirection of the sound beam back to the transducer and the basis for the ultrasound image produced by the machine


Mode with 2 dimensional graphics; Used for most veterinary applications


When sound is reflected in different directions from tissue interfaces and is unable to return to the transducer to form an image


Area appears darker than surrounding tissues due to small percentage of sound reflected back


Mode with one dementional graphic display


Area is equal in appearance to that of surrounding tissues


Contains 2 crystals: One constantly sends sound waves, while the other constantly one "listens"

Continuous wave transducer

The ability of living tissues to resist or allow the transmission of sound

Acoustic Impedance

What is the ideal substance used to couple the skin with the transducer?

Ultrasound Gel

______________ ray radiation is classified as ionizing radiation, while _____________ ray radiation is classified as electromagnetic radiation

Beta, Gamma

What additional view can be helpful for assessing a positive-contrast cystogram, especially in a male patient?


The latent image on a photostimulable phosphor plate is read by a computed radiography processor (image reader device, or plate reader) using:

A helium-neon laser

In Computed Radiography why is it important to erase the image within 24 hours?

The image may show up as a ghost artifact.

Which view is contraindicated during an esophagography and why?

Ventrodorsal; Potential for aspiration

A binary number, composed of 2 digits, 0 and 1

A bit

Spatial Resolution of digital radiography systems is equal to or less than conventional screen film radiography, but contrast resolution is vastly superior. True or False


3 disadvantages of Digital Radiography

Training learning curve Equipment costs The hospital's computer system must be compatable

What is the purpose of a cleansing enema in urinary contrast studies?

Elimination of gas artifacts

When should urine be collected for lab work, if a cystogram is indicated?

Before beginning the study

This positive-contrast medium is completely insoluble in the gastrointestinal tract and is not absorbed by the abdomen or thorax if leakage occurs.

Barium Sulfate

Which is more similar to traditional radiography, indirect digital radiography or direct digital radiography?

Indirect is similar to conventional radiography, where we take a cassette (filmless digital plate) then put it into a processor (Image reading device) and out pops the x-ray (digital image on the screen).

PACS is an acronym for:

Picture Archiving and Communication System

recommended for performing intravenous pyelography

Fast 12 to 24 hours before

Flat Panel Digital Imaging Systems allow you to use your existing x-ray machine in most instances. True or False


When doing a cystogram, you would:

Place urinary catheter and infuse contrast directly into bladder

In Computed Radiography, why is it best to process the image within a few hours?

The latent image is temporary.

Digital Radiography, with all of the available image manipulation tools, can make up for any radiographic image diagnostic, regardless of patient motion, malpositioning or gross over- or under- exposure. True of False


What is the most diagnostic examination of the gastric mucosal lining?

Double-contrast gastrogram

4 advantages of Digital Radiography.

Image Quality and Manipulation, Time Savings, Storage, and Transport Cost Savings

Radiopaque stones would be visualized on a survey radiograph, therefore eliminating the need for further studies. True or False?


Permitting passage of x-rays through to the film (general term)


Positive Contrast Agent

Barium Sulfate

Obstructs passage of x-rays to the film (general term)


Negative Contrast Agent

Air & CO2

What should be included in an x-ray of a limb joint?

The bone distal and proximal to the joint of interest

Please match the following areas of the darkroom.
Film storage
Loading of cassettes
Unloading of cassettes
Chemical processing
Film hangers
Manual Processing



The walls of a darkroom should be painted what color?

White or Cream

Rinses developer from film, Removes processing chemicals from film surface


Converts latent image on film to visible image


Clears unexposed silver halide crystals from film

5 specific qualities of a good darkroom

Clean, Organized, Lightproof, Used only for processing radiographs, Climate controlled, Cool, Low Humidity, Good Ventilation

What is the legal requirement regarding film labeling?

All film labeling must be IN film emulsion.

steps in film processing (in order).

developer, rinsing, fixer, washing, drying

Prevent excessive swelling of film emulsion


Accelerates action and helps to neutralize any alkaline developer carried over into fixer tank


Helps maintain desired pH


Helps to carry silver halide away from film


Prevents decomposition of fixing agent


In general, what is the minimum number of views required for each anatomic area radiographed?


How long does Alabama law require a clinic to keep a radiograph?

3 years

In general how often should processing chemicals be replenished or replaced?

every 3 months

Where should the radiographic measurement be taken of an anatomic area?

the thickest part

What is the proper temperature for processing chemicals


Where should the crosshairs be placed on the anatomic area of interest?

In the center of the anatomic area of interest.

95% of the exposure to the film is caused by the intensifying screens. True or False


True or False
-Preferably, phosphor crystals will continue to emit light after x-ray exposure ceases.
-Radiographic detail is directly proportional to screen speed.
-Rare Earth is in the blue light spectrum
-Rare Earth has 10 times the x-ray-to-light conversion than Calcium Tungstate.


4 layers of Film composition?

Base, Adhesive, Emulsion, Protective

What two things most commonly causes damage to cassettes?

dropping, leaking fluid

When would the "bucky" not be used in taking radiographs?

When the part being exposed is <10cm

example of a non-screen x-ray

dental, Mobile unit for large animal

An invisible image on the x-ray film AFTER it has been exposed by ionizing radiation and BEFORE the film has been processed is called _________________.

Latent Image

More grainy images - lacks definition, Requires less exposure, Less forgiving, Large silver halide crystals

Fast Speed Film

Most widely used, Par Speed

Medium Speed Film

Greater detail

Slow Speed Film

What vapors can cause film fogging?

Formalin, Hydrogen Peroxide, Ammonia

What are the four layers of Screen construction?





Please explain the parameters for cool room and low humidity in film care.

10° to 15° C or 50° to 59° F
40% to 60%

What is a common term for non-"bucky" exposures?


What two things is a cassette designed to hold?

X-Ray Film, Intensifying Screens

True or False

-X-rays do not cause biologic changes in living tissue
-99% of energy produced from electrons interacting with the target is converted into X-ray energy
-Keeping an accurate X-ray log is not a requirement


True or False
-Photon have no electric charge
-The X-ray tube is where x-rays are generated

-KVP is the penetrating power of the X-ray


What type of x-ray machine utilizes a stationary anode?

Dental Units or Portable Units for Large Animal Medicine

What is the number one cause of X-Ray Tube failure?

Operator error

When would it not be necessary to utilize the Potter-Bucky Diaphragm?hen would it not be necessary to utilize the Potter-Bucky Diaphragm?

On parts/patients being x-rayed that are 10 centimenters or less in thickness.

What are the two purposes of the collimator?

Prevents Unnecessary Patient Exposure, Decreases Production of Scatter Radiation

Positively charged electrode


Negatively charged electrode


Ristricting device that controls size of beam


Measures radiation exposure


Movable grid inside of x-ray table


Absorbs non-image radiation


Please explain, in detail, what the HEEL Effect is and how you can use it to your advantage.

More x-rays are emitted on the cathode side so the uneven distribution or x-rays can be advantagous by placing the thicker portion of the patient on that side, thereby balancing the the distribution of x-rays more evenly.

Penetrating Power of X-rays, Radiographic Contrast, Electron Speed, Radiation Wavelength


Number of Electrons, Amount of X-rays, Exposure Time, Filament Temperature


What kind of charges do Protons & Anodes have?


What kind of charges do Electrons & Cathodes have?


What kind of charge do Neutrons have?


What are the 3 types of Radiation?


______ ______ is the degree of blackness on the film

Radiographic Density

In general, if density is too light, an ajdustment should be made by

Adding 10 to kVp setting

Another name for a Radiographic Illuminator would be what?

View Box

True or False


1. What does the acronym ALARA stand for?

2. What is it specifically concerning?

1. ALARA stands for as low as reasonably achieveable.

2. ALARA is specifically concerning ionizing radiation and making efforts to use the lowest dose of radiation possible.

Who is responsible for a safe radiation environment?

It is the practice owners responsibility.

What specifically (3) are they responsible for?

a. To ensure that proper radiation safety measures are observed; b. That the practice meets state and federal requirements; c. that personnel are properly instructed on safety protocols.

Name the 4 Methods of Radiation Safety.



What are the 3 types of geometric distortion?


What is the cause of geometric distortion?

When the area (or subject) of interest is not CLOSE to the film AND PARELLEL to the film, the image will be distorted and will lack detail.

how to test for Grid Deterioration

Place a cassette in the grid tray; do not put anything on the table top. Set the technical factors to 50 kV, 3 mAs and expose the film in the cassette. (You may have to use 65 kV for the digital image.) Process the image and review the film or review the image on the monitor. The image should be a medium light grey with no irregularities.

Please explain why collimation is important for radiographic image quality.

Collimation helps eliminate scatter radiation. Scatter radiation adds grayness and fuzziness to the image being radiographed. The grayness added decreases contrast within the image and reduces the quality of the image.

Refers to the visible difference between two adjacent radiographic densities

Radiographic Contrast

Refers to what degree the shadows identified on the film clearly depict the anatomical features under investigation

Radiographic Quality

Refers to the edge of an anatomic structure

Radiographic Detail

Refers to the degree of darkness or blackness on the film

Radiographic Density

Radiographic Technique refers to what 2 things?

kVp, mAs

When x-rays hit the film, after developing, that area will turn ________________.


Please describe the difference in long and short latitude for radiographic contrast.

Latitude is the shades of gray from one end to the other on a scale of grays for a particular x-ray. Short latitude has less shades of gray with more black and white. Long latitude has more shades of gray and less black and white.

Radiation should be ___________________, not ____________________."

Respected not feared

lease list the following from LEAST dense to MOST dense

choices: Metal, Soft Tissue, Fat, Bone, Gas

Gas, Fat, Soft Tissue, Bone, Metal

If the Radiographic Image Quality is described as "Over-penetrated", the Density would be described as what?


True or False. It is never ok to have your hands in the primary beam unless they are protected by lead gloves at least 0.5 mm in thickness.


Please explain why exposure factors might need to be adjusted due to ascites.

Since acites is an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, the caliper measurement might make the density too great since fluid is less dense than tissues.