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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Ganga (19th c. British Raj)

Hand-colored woodblock print

Deity of the River Ganges (water spirit)

Possible European influence due to British Colonial Rule (i.e. halo?)

Shiva as Gangadhara (1740 Mughal)

Gouache on paper

Deity of consistency and stability

Common symbols: tiger, skull necklace, snake, water spout

Wife: Pavrati (fertility)

Mughal style, miniature Rajput painting

Kali Dancing on Shiva (1890 British Raj)

Calcutta, India


Change conquers consistency

Story of Kali and the Demons

Often misrepresented in Western media

Ragini Painting a Portrait (1690 Mughal)

Rajasthan, India

Gouache on paper

Miniature Ragmala painting = incorporates various forms of art (e.g. painting, writing, music)

Emphasizes architecture

Implies close correlation between art and reality

Akbar Inspecting Construction Works (1590 Mughal)

Gouache on paper

Akbarnama = biography of Akbar the Great

Fatehpur Sikri, India

Strong movement created by diagnol

No perspective, sense of depth by placement

Hour of Cowdust (1790 Mughal)

Gouache on paper

Uttar Pradesh, India

Miniature Rajput painting (Pahari)

Stagnant movement

Emphasis on architecture, but no perspective

Battle at Lanka, Ramayana (1650 Mughal)

Udaipur, India

Gouache on paper

Time-lapse = multiple moments portrayed simultaneously

Demonstrates heroism (Story of the Battle at Lanka)

Created by Muslim artist = shows religious tolerance of Mughal dynasty

Theorama (1994)

Serigraph print

Maqbool Fida Husain (Muslim)

Illustrates many Hindu deities = modern representation of stories

Krishna (flute), Braman (faces), Ganesha (elephant), Shiva (water spout)

Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains (1296 Yuan)

Handscroll with ink and color on paper

Zhou Mengfu

Yuan Dynast leads to rise of Literati (embraced Chinese identity amidst chaos of Mongol invasion)

Naturalistic and stylized, saturated palette

The Ronxi Studio (1372 Yuan)

Hanging scroll with ink on paper

Ni Zan (Literati)

Simplistic, monochrome landscape

Drybrushing technique and absence of color creates sense of breadth

Drawn from meditative qualities of Zen Buddhism

Hundreds of Birds Admiring the Peacocks (late 15th c. Ming)

Hanging scroll with ink on silk

Yin Hong

North School = traditional, realist, emphasizes conformity

Peacocks = government officials (Ming Dynasty = very strict and somewhat abusive power regime)

Birds = the people

Represents people's devotion towards leaders

Returning Home Late from a Spring Outing (late 15th c. Ming)

Hanging scroll with ink on silk

Dia Jin

South School = experimental, open to contemporary, emphasizes personal expression

Sense of isolation and oneness with nature

Line variation in trees shows individuality

Spring Dawn in the Han Palace (1500-1550 Ming)

Handscroll with ink and color on silk

Qui Ying

North School

Extreme precision and attention to detail

'Perfection' in execution and representation of society (promotes conformity and conservatism)

Poet on a Mountaintop (1500 Ming)

Ink and color on paper

Shen Zhou (Literati)

Sense of individual experience, emphasized through combination of art forms (e.g. painting, poetry)

Illustrates an 'epiphany' (Zen Buddhist and Transcendentalist feel)

The Qingbian Mountains (1617 Ming)

Hanging scroll with ink on paper

Don Qichang = believed art was a fundamental abstraction of nature, therefore any attempts to realistically portray landscapes was pointless

Extremely abstract and chaotic

Landscape (1700 Qing)

Ink and color on paper

from An Album of Landscapes, Shitao

More abstract than previous (extreme emphasis on individuality)

Harsh lines represent jagged mountain side, splatter marks represent lichen

Peaceful monk amidst chaotic landscape

Panoramic View of the Diamond Mountains (1734 Joseon)

Hanging scroll with ink and color on paper

Jeong Seon

Korean Silhak Movement (emphasizes incorporation of classic Chinese and Korean)

Displays individuality through intensely personal style and energetic

Very experimental and bold

Pine Spirit (1984)

Ink and color on paper

Wu Guanzhong

Contemporary artist draws of traditional Chinese art while also incorporating outside influence (rise of Abstract Expressionism)

No. 34 (1949)

Jackson Pollock

Abstract Expressionism

Siege of Rhodes (1522 Ottoman)

Miniature painting on paper

Arifi or Nasuh

Crusades allowed for extensive trade between Europe and the Middle-East & Asia

Very Islamic style with colorful mosaic and stylization

Extremely different from the true Palace of the Grand Master, which is quite austere and functional (artist never visited palace)

Alhambra (1330 Moorish)

Granada, Spain = final stronghold of Islamic Spaniards before heavy christianization tactics were implemented

Islamic architecture incorporates an open center (courtyard) and ornate decorations (pattern mosaics)

Alcazar of Seville (1360 Moorish)

Seville, Spain

Moorish architecture (Mudejar style) with classical Spanish structures

First Courtyard of the Palazzo Vecchio (1450)

Florence, Italy

Romanesque architecture with grotesque décor

(Grotesque = Arabesque = Moresque)

Incorporates Muslim architectural elements, which demonstrates cultural appropriation

The Bad City (1340)


Western wall of the Sala dei Nove, Palazzo Pubblico (Siena, Italy)

Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Very Roman traditional with dark, tight rendering and methodical details

Push for the spirit of antiquity

Cargo from the Hoi An Shipwreck (1450)

Vietnamese white ceramic and porcelain with cobalt

Increase in maritime trade (Silk Road) led to Vietnamese trade with Europe (cobalt technique not present in Europe yet)

Private excavation rather than professional archeological site led to few sustained artifacts (commercial side worried about inflation)

Dragon Flasks (1430 Ming)

Porcelain and cobalt blue = exotic goods for Europeans (adapted by Netherlands later to create Delft Tiles in 16th c.)

Fueled trade particularly with the Dutch East India Company

Use of traditional patterns with striking contrast

Cargo from the Vung Tau Shipwreck (1690 Qing)

Porcelain and cobalt blue

Silk Road = Arab-Asiatic trade with Europe

Virgin & Child Reliquary (1330 French Gothic)

Silver gilt and enamel

Figure has kourotrophic contrapposto pose

Chest supposedly contains lock of Virgin Mary's hair

Animals associated with prophets

(Lion = Mark, Bull = Luke, Man = Matthew, Eagle = John)

Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux (French Gothic)

Grisaille and color on vellum

Jean Pucelle

Illustrates crucifixion scene and the decree of King Herod

Grisaille and color on vellum

Danse Macabre (1493 German Gothic)

Machael Wolgemut

Woodblock print

Dark comedy sheds humor during the dark ages of the plague and its consequent death (common characteristic of German printmakers)

Expulsion (1526 German Gothic)

Danse Macabre Series

Hans Holbein the Younger

Woodblock print

Satirical illustration that shows death is inevitable

The Temptations of St. Anthony (1475 Late German Gothic)


Martin Schongauer = big influence on Hieronymous Bosch specifically with renderings of demons

Shows St. Anthony as stoic and steadfast amidst an onslaught of demonic attacks (subtle connection with Chinese monks who remained detached in a very materialistic, chaotic world)

Mary at Her Devotions (1480 Late Gothic)

Hours of Mary of Burgundy (important figure in Hapsburg empire following her father's death and large inheritance of land)

Illuminated manuscript on parchment

Kourotrophic Virgin Mary

Layering of perspective and ideas, creating "windows"

Unicorn at the Fountain (1500 Netherlandish)

Hunt of the Unicorn Series (tapestry)

Unicorn Allegory = Jesus (previously represented sexuality and innocence of a virgin)

Extreme attention to detail and greater symbolic meaning which typically identified Netherlandish work

Large tapestries hung on walls to create a "false window"

Merode Altarpiece (1430 Early Netherlandish)

Oil paint on wood

Oblique perspective to show each item and its symbolism (white lilies = virginity, mouse trap = Jesus, mouse = devil)

Emphasizes shared space with divine entities

Patrons: Engelbrecht (angels) & Schrynmeur (carpenter)

Illustrates Enunciation scene = angel Gabriel comes to inform Mary

Arnolfini Portrait (1434 Early Netherlandish)

Jan van Eyck

Oil paint on wood panel creates sense of luminosity

Manifestation of wealth

The Ghent Altarpiece (1430 Early Netherlandish)

Oil paint on wood

Jan van Eyck

Illustrates the enunciation scene

Adam and Eve on sides (Eve portrayed as antagonist)

Diptych of Maarten van Nieuwenhove (1487 Netherlandish)

Oil paint on wood

Hans Memling

Kourotrophic Virgin Mary

Illustrates shared space with divinity (connection with Merode Altarpiece) = Virgin Mary's cloak crosses over into Maarten's space

Deposition (1435 Early Netherlandish)

Rogier van der Weyden

Oil and tempera paint on wood panel

Continued strict attention to detail

Virgin Mary's position mimics that of Jesus as he's being taken down from the cross = strong emotional pull

Sermon to the Birds (1300 Pre-Renaissance)

San Francesco, Assisi, Italy

Fresco painting


Demonstrates beginning works of depth through lighting

Breakaway from medieval figure drawing

Doves and pigeons = common birds (possibly reflects growing attitudes towards an individual relationship with God)

Exorcism of the Demons at Arezzo (1300 Pre-Renaissance)

San Francesco, Assisi, Italy

Giotto, fresco painting with Lapis Lazuli (blue pigment from Afghanistan, shows wealth)

Dark and realistic portrayals of figures emphasize Humanism

Working progress towards depth and perspective, but lacks proportion in architecture

Birth of Venus (1485 Renaissance)

Tempera and gold on canvas

Florence, Italy (Medici Family controlled city-state of Florence and patronized many works of art)


Artist focus on human form (reflects current humanist attitudes) and the ideal form of female beauty and sexuality

Map of Hell (1490 Renaissance)

Tempera on parchment

Florence, Italy


Darker shift from previous focus on nude females

Illustrates the nine circles of hell (Dante's Inferno)

Akbar Receiving the Akbarnama (1600 Mughal)

Traditional miniature painting, gouache on paper

Displays multiple vantage points as opposed to the use of a single vantage point in Renaissance art

Trinity with the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors (1425 Renaissance)

Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy

Masaccio, fresco painting

Single vantage point emphasizes sense of depth and exemplifies Renaissance handle of perspective (as opposed to oblique perspective of Pre-Renaissance works such as Merode Altarpiece)

Vitruvian Man (1490 Renaissance)

Ink sketch

da Vinci

Illustrates Renaissance focus on proportions and the ideal representation of the human form (i.e. aspect of Humanism)

Vesperbild (1330 German Gothic)

wood and polychrome

Rather unproportioned

Facial expression of Mary exaggerated to allude to the pain and misery of death (as opposed to the peaceful, accepting expression of Pieta)

Pieta (1500 Renaissance)

The Vatican, Rome, Italy

Michelangelo, marble statue

Emotion is more repressed than the Vesperbild and seems more accepting of sacrifice

Placed in Vatican, church officials would want viewers to feel at peace with sacrifice (i.e. monetary donations?)

David (1460 Pre-Renaissance)


Florence, Italy


David is displayed in a contrapposto pose with long curls

Feminine and sensual (homoerotic) = Florence was much more liberal and open to homosexuality

David (1475 Pre-Renaissance)


Florence, Italy

Del Verocchio

More masculine than Donatello's David

Modeled after young da Vinci

David (1504 Renaissance)

Florence, Italy

Michelangelo, marble statue

Emphasizes masculinity, especially in juxtaposition to previous David statues (Donatello and Verocchio)

Stump behind leg acts as counterbalance = technique used by Romans

Venus of Urbino (1538 Renaissance)

Oil on canvas


Illustrates the "male gaze" by blatantly sexualizing the female form

Modeled after prostitute

Winter Landscape (1470s Muromachi)

Ink on paper

Sesshu = studied and surpassed Shubun (regarded as Japan's first great master of ink landscape)

Japanese style of Zen Ink painting

Broke away from refined landscape of Shubun by emphasizing the jagged mountainside and boldly expressing the harsh sense of cold

Landscape (1495 Muromachi)

Ink on silk


Further emphasizes breakaway from the traditionally refined landscape

Sumi-e style (ink wash painting) incorporates a lot of negative space to show breadth and absence

Pine Forest (Late 16th c. Momoyama)

Ink on paper screen

Tohaku = founded the Hasegawa School, which emphasized simplicity

Illustrated in a Sumi-e style that drew back to minimalist expression, as opposed to the flashy bold expressions of the Moyomama period

Tea Bowl "Mount Fuji " (Late 16th c. Momoyama)


Example of Raku = handmade, low-fired ceramic developed for use in tea ceremonies

Characterisitics: small foot, straight sides, irregular shape, and crackled texture

Arrival of Portuguese Ship (1600 Nanban)

Illuminated screen (Nanban = "Southern Barbarian" = early Europeans)

Portrays the arrival of Portuguese ship at the port of Nagasaki

Takiyasha the Witch and the Skeleton Spectre(1840 Edo)

Kuniyoshi, polychrome woodblock triptych

Ukiyo-e (the floating world = described hedonistic lifestyle) woodblock prints were inexpensively produced and not considered serious fine art

Illustrates the story of Princess Takiyasha and the aftermath of a failed rebellion

Tamatori Evades Ryujin (1840 Edo)

Kuniyoshi, polychrome woodblock triptych

Ukiyo-e Style

Edo Period: characterized by strict social order, high enjoyment of arts and culture, and economic growth

Illustrates the legend of Princess Tamatori

Irezumi (1860 Edo)

Kimbei, tatoo

Form of traditional Japanese tattooing for spiritual and decorative purposes, resurfaced in popularity during Edo Period

Elaborately designed tattoos were associated with courage and bravery (drawn from heroes featured in the Chinese novel, Suikoden)

Sea Life: Dreaming of the Artist's Mother (1950)

Wanjuk Marika

Bark painting

Refers to ancient idea of "dreamtime" = the period before humans existed. Indigenous belief system recognizes ancestral spirit beings (who formed the Earth's physical features) as emerging from the earth or the sea and taking on many forms

Indigenous people = descendants of the ancestral spirit beings

Man's Bush Tucker Dreaming (1971)

Acrylic on board


Abstract representation of the desert floor. Large shapes are footprints of a man who's hunting for grubs and the elongated shapes are sand markings made by his fingers. His weapon (boomerang) is illustrated near the top

Asmat Ancestral Spirit Poles (1960)

Carved and decorated wood

New Guinea

Asmat: fierce, cannibalistic tribe

Carved and decorated wood poles embodied the spirits of ancestors (figures on poles represented dead individuals that needed to be avenged)

Lacy phalluses near top symbolize male fertility, and surface decoration implies body ornamentation`


New Zealand

Preserved heads of Maori tribe members, faces decorated in facial tattoos. The heads of enemy chiefs were also preserves as war trophies

Later became commercial trade items among European and American merchants to barter for firearms and ammo

Tapa Cloth

Mulberry bark and dye

Tonga, Polynesia

Tapa: traditional bark cloth made for clothing (very decorative and labor-intensive)

Generally traded for special occasions and symbolize wealth


Tonga, Polynesia

Unisex dress made from woven plant leaves

Worn on formal occasions (decoration depends on occasion)

Handicraft good made by women

Moai (1500)

Carved stone

Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Polynesia

One of the most iconic traits of Polynesian culture and common throughout the islands

Very stylized form

Massive figures could represent deceased chiefs

Formation stopped around 1500 (entered period of civil war)

Wapepe Navigation Chart (19th c.)

Marshall Islands, Polynesia

Made from sticks, coconut fibers, and shells

Constructed diagrams to represent portions of the archipelago and interpret patterns of ocean swells

Acted as memory aids (exclusively on land prior to voyages)

Columbus' Map (1490)

(unknown cartographer)

Ink on vellum

Illustrated Europeans' limited view of the world

Highly decorative and illustrated

Map of Piri Reis (1513)


Ink on paper

World map compiled by military intelligence

Demonstrated the extent of exploration of the New World by 1510

The True History of His Captivity (1557)

Hans Staden

Book illustrated the life of natives through the use of woodblock prints

Helped to humanize indigenous people for Europeans

Compendium Maleficarum (1608)

Francesco Guazzo

Woodcut prints

Illustrated acts of witchcraft (during the witch scare)

Witches' Sabbath (1508)

Hans Baldung

Woodblock print

Utilizes Chiaroscuro (influenced by Albrecht Durer)

Hebrew writing on jar shows anti-Semitic values

Horsemen of the Apocalypse(1498)

Albrecht Durer

Woodblock print

Infers underlying resentment towards Catholics (displayed by Pope being trampled by death)

Adam & Eve (1504)

Albrecht Durer


Italian style renderings of human form

Animals represent the 4 Greek Temperments (which correlate to the 4 seasons: Cholerie = summer, Sanguine = spring, Melancholic = fall, Phlegmatic = winter)

Adam & Eve (1519)

Hans Baldung

Woodblock print


Sexualilzes Adam and Eve more than Durer's rendition

Shows that humans are inherently flawed

Sedna (1800)

Inuit, Alaska/Canada

Walrus ivory

Story of Sedna: father attempted to rescue her from demons but throws her overboards and cuts off fingers, which become different sea animals

Hunters appeal to Sedna to hunt walruses and seals

Sedna (2008)

Serpentine statue

Ovilu Tunnillie


Represented as mermaid-like sexualizes the story of Sedna. Artist is trying to draw connections with contemporary issues of domestic violence

Dzunukwa (1850)

Wood carving

Kwakiutl Tribes

Dzunukwa ("the wind that blows through pine trees"): mythological figure often portrayed as somewhat demonic and steals children to eat

Endless Snake (1987)

Sand and pigment on muslin

Lynda and Roger Hathale

Southern Athabaskan

Contemporary but still respects traditional Navajo gender roles (women = weaving, men = sand painting)

Whirling Log Ceremony (1925)

Hosteen Klah

Southern Athabaskan

Woven wool tapestry imitation of sand painting

3rd gender person, "berdache" (highly respected in Navajo culture as great mediators)

New Dawn (nd)

Diego Romero

Puebloan artist, ceramic

Critique on contemporary society: Illustrates the use of renewable energy (i.e. windmills) in comparison to fossil fuels in his other work, Industrial Landscape

Utilizes dark humor and draws influence from pop art

Okesa (2006)

Oil on canvas

Norman Akers

New Mexico

Contemporary artist incorporates traditional Southwest art elements (i.e. anthropomorphic petroglyph) with color pop art to make statement about cultural heritage

Gorget with Spider and Hands (1800)


Shell Gorget: object of prestige, worn as pendant

Based of the Suncatching Myth: Grandmother Spider successfully "caught" a piece of the sun for the animal people

Storytelling explains natural occurrences

Inappropriate 3 (2013)

Acrylic on canvas

Frank Buffalo Hyde

Critique on contemporary society an mocking pop culture

Focuses on cultural appropriation

Stereotype: The Barrymore (2013)

Mixed Media

Cannupa Hanska

Mocking pop cultural and calling out cultural appropriation as kitsch and dishonoring by "stealing and consuming an identity"