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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Catal Huyuk: purpose
-First planned city
Catal Huyuk: people
-Archaeologist Mellart discovers this city
Catal Huyuk: architectural features
-Courtyard city.
-Each house had thick, thermal, mud-brick walls
-entry way in the roof.
Catal Huyuk: other
-Inhumation burial: when the body is left to decay until bones, then bones are wrapped and carried with family.
Stonehenge: purpose
-Commemorates death
-Calendar based on lunar cycles and solstices
-Animistic shrine
Stonehenge: people
-“Beaker people” invade during construction period and force people to rebuild Stonehenge larger.
-John Aubrey finds holes in ground speculated to be burial places for cremated remains of important people
Stonehenge: architectural features
-Bluestones: large stones chosen because when hit by light they seem to glow
-Tribiation: crossbar with two uprights
-Trilithon: three stones (lithos=stone in Greek)
-Menhir: “standing stone” in local Celtic dialect
Woodhenge: purpose
-Commemorates life
-For ceremonies in conjunction with Stonehenge
Avebury: purpose
-Near Stonehenge
-speculated to be religious ‘headquarters’
Avebury: architectual
-Rocks irregular in shape but evenly spaced around circle
-supposed to be 10x the side of Stonehenge
Silbury: purpose
-Near Avebury
-represents belly of pregnant woman and is symbol of fertility
Silbury: architectual
-Dome shaped, earth-covered mound in ground
Skarabrae: purpose
-planned community around the same time as Stonehenge
Skarabrae: architectual
-Corbeling: placing one stone above another, increasing the cantilever to create dome without using mortar
Saqqara: Purpose
-South of Cairo
-burial place of Pharaoh Zoser
Saqqara: People
-Architect Imhotep. Later becomes deified for medical/healing abilities
Saqqara: architectual
Mastaba: “bench” in Arabic. Made from mud and used to cover graves
-Imhotep builds 5-tiered Mastaba
Hed Seb: purpose
-Ceremony where pharaoh runs around track to see if he is fit to reign. If not, he is killed
Giza: purpose
-Ceremonial complex for Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure
-Khufu’s pyramid was the first build and the largest, followed by Khafre
Giza: people
Khufu was the father of Khafre and Menkaure
Giza: architectual
-Angle of pyramid edge is 51.5° because it was the closest to angle of sun and was efficient.
-Pyramids built with traps and lots of paths to stop grave robbers
-Dressed (smoothed) limestone with golden capstone
-Theories on how it was built: like an onion with lots of cladded layers; with ramps
-moved stones by rolling logs
-used water channels as natural level
Giza: other
Sphinx (lion and human being) nearby pyramids
Muyden: Purpose
-example of pyramid built from middle outwards
-Period of Pyramids followed by period of temples
Temples: architectual
-usually linear
-Pylon gate: large entry way with flags and many colors
-First chamber for public worship
-second chamber: less public, for priest and important-people worship
-third chamber: storage, mostly for holy artifacts
temples: other
-Gans effect: opening in ceiling creates ethereal feeling
Temple of Hawara: purpose
-temple which was robbed, giving the idea to Mentuhotep to build in Luxor
Temple of Mentuhotep: purpose
-Luxor, or the “Valley of the Kings and Queens
-Burial complex for Mentuhotep II
Temple of Mentuhotep: people
-Mentuhotep witnessed grave-robbing and decided to build his temple in Luxor.
Temple of Mentuhotep: architectual
-Mentuhotep’s pyramid built into mountain wall under “Al Qurn”, hornlike, pyramidlike mound.
Deir al Bahri: meaning
- “By the Water” in Arabic
- In Luxor, near Temple of Mentuhotep
-Burial complex for Hatshepsut
Deir al Bahri: people
-Hatshepsut, regent for son Thutmoses, adds onto Mentuhotep’s complex
-Semnut is Hatshepsut’s architect (and possible lover)
Deir al Bahri: architectual
-Hatshepsut’s temple series of terraces
-Hypostyle hall: structure with many columns
Temple of Amunra: purpose
-Biggest temple in Egypt in Luxor
Temple of Amunra: architectual
-Clearastory: short wall which allows light in
- Impost block: top of column which allows roof to be raised without being seen so it gives the effect that the roof is levitating.
Temple of Abydos: purpose
-near Luxor
-main temple for Osiris (where his head was buried)
Temple of abydos: people
-Osiris was pharaoh who was killed by brother. Wife, Isis, magically revives him but brother kills him again by cutting him into 9 different pieces. Isis finds all of them and gives each body part to a different part of Egypt
-Osiris becomes symbol of Egypt, renewal, and life
-built by Seti I
temple of abydos: architectual
L-shaped temple
-magazine storehouse for sacrifices
-democratic worship place because everyone can enter, not just priests
temple of abydos: other
-Nomes: districts of Egypt according to distribution of Osiris’s body parts
Armarna: purpose
-New capital during Akenaten’s reign (changed from Thebes/Luxor)
amarna: people
-Akenaten changed his name to “lover of sun” and changed culture to monotheistic, sun-worshiping culture. Married Nefertiti, prized for beauty
-Son, Tutankhamen, changes culture and capital back
amarna: archtiectual
-Disc-shaped site oriented towards setting sun
Temple of Abusimebl: purpose
temple for ramses II
temple of Abusumebl: people
-Ramses II most powerful pharaoh. Extended Egypt’s borders
Temple of Abusimebl: architectual
-Four large statues of Ramses in the front with wives at his feet
-Sculpture of Ramses inside positioned so that light will shine directly on him on his birthday
City of Knossos
minoan: capital city
city of Knossos: people
-King Minos
-Minotaur: Minos raises prize bulls. Tries to con Zeus by selling him fake. Zeus gets angry and forces Minos’s wife to mate with cow, producing half-bull, half-human minotaur. Minotaur confined to labyrinth
city of knossos: archtiectual
-Oriented North-South
-utilitarian buildings on the outside of the city on the East/West sides which acted as insulation for the inside --Central court placed to get fresh air.
-Lustral baths: public baths located at entry points to city so everyone will be clean
-Megaron: throne room for king.
-Columns skinny at the bottom, wide at the top
city of knossos: other
City wiped out by volcanic eruption and Mycenae takes over. Mycenae take Minoans as slaves
Lion gate( mycenae)
entryway into city of mycenae
lion gate: archtiectual
logo at top is emblem of power (lions controlling/own column)
-Tribiation: two uprights with a crossbar
lion gate: other
-cemetery to soldiers first site upon entry
-Mycenae highly military-oriented
treasury of atreus: purpose
-used either for storage or for burial
treasury of atreus: architectual
- Corbeling: placing one stone above another, increasing the cantilever to create dome without using mortar
-Tholos: narrow entryway
city of troy: purpose
-City which was leader during time between height of Mycenae and emergence of Greece
city of troy: architectual
- small
-no remains, pure speculation
temple of hera
-First Greek stone temple
-in Paestum
temple of hera: architectual
-Columns highly curved. Neither Doric nor ionic
-Entasis: swelling of columns
Temple of Delphi
-Temple for Apollo
-at Parnassus, believed to be mountain where gods lived
-Temple for delphi: other
-Oracle in well (probably in hallucinogenic gasses) of Delphi tells Greeks to “hide behind walls of wood” when fighting against Persians
Acropolis: purpose
-5 main elements: Temple of Athena Nike, Parthenon, Propylaea, Erectheum, Pinacotheca
Acropolis: people
Pericles is a Greek leader/general who rebuilds Parthenon by collecting money from all the Greek city-states
Acropolis: architectual
Propylaea: gateway designed by Menisicles. Has all types of columns to show Greece uniting
-Erectheum: temple to Erectheus, founder of Greece. Caryatids: greek column in shape of human. Supports theory that columns are based on human structure
- Panatheneca: museum/dedication to builders
-Temple of Athena Nike: commemorates battle of Salinas and
faces towards battlegrounds
-Parthenon: Doric order with frieze that depicts panathenaic procession. Slight curves lead to perfect-appearing proportions. Pentelic marble used. Huge statue of Athena inside. Iktinos and Kallikrates.
City of Agora: architectual
Buildings oriented toward path of Panathenaic Procession
city of agora: other
-Panathenaic Procession: parade through Agora which all Greeks took annually
Temple of Apollo in Bassae: purpose
temple of apollo
Temple of Apollo in Bassae: people
Built by Iktinos (co-builder of Parthenon)
Temple of Apollo in Bassae: architectural
-Doric order
-able to be entered by everyone