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5 Cards in this Set

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Khedive Isma’il (Egypt, r. 1863-79)
• He was the grandson of Muhammad Ali and his policies affected Egyptian domestic development and external relations. His objective was the complete Europeanization of Egypt in a short time. He also made little attempt to blend his reformist programs into longstanding Egyptian-Islamic traditions.
• He encouraged the education of a European-educated elite, but he made no attempt to alter the relationship between the monarchy and the people. He was an authoritarian ruler.
• Isma’il instituted educational reforms (see colonial feminism) aimed at furnishing the Egyptian state with European style military and later the education of girls and the creation of a national public education system
• Ismail tried to establish his independence by showering Ottoman officials with gifts and bribes. His efforts were rewarded when Sultan Abdul Aziz elevated him to Khedive – a Persian term, which implies that he was something closer to royalty. Egypt was also granted the right to issue its own currency, and contract foreign loans without the sultan’s approval.
• Mixed courts were his biggest development. The increase in the number of foreigners doing business in Egypt brought about more disputes between foreigners and Egyptians. Under the terms of the capitulations, which sheltered foreign nationals from Egyptian law, foreigners were basically never convicted. Mixed Courts were introduced to solve this problem.
• He spent large sums of money trying to make Egypt look like European cities. The crowning achievement in the field of transport was the Suez Canal (1869). He entertained European dignitaries and commissioned Aida for the occasion.
o The canal helped with the cotton boom – Britain was turning to Egypt for all of its cotton needs because of the Confederate blockade during the civil war. But the boom in cotton wasn’t enough to keep up with Ismail’s expenditures.
• Over the next six years Egypt’s economic depression led to their loss of political independence.
• In 1876 Ismail agreed to the creation of the Public Debt Commission, controlled by Europe to pay back Ottoman debt (one from France and one from Britain) were appointed to the Ottoman government to supervise the expenditure of Ottoman revenues. *Egyptian but answered to Ottomans
• When Ismail then tried to preserve his financial independence by dismissing the two controllers and rallying popular support, the European powers decided it was time for him to step down, put another local leader (puppet) in his place.
• See also Wafd Party, Capitulations, PDAmin., Suez Canal
Public Debt Administration (OE, 1881)
• Protected by the capitulations of the Ottoman Empire it was a European-run administrative body that collected money from the Ottoman empire due when they declared bankruptcy
• See also, Capitulations,