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229 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which stage of the criminal justice process examines issues of fact and law for the purpose of reaching a judgment of conviction or acquittal of the defendant(s)?
Which model assumes that the system's subcomponents work together harmoniously to achieve the social product we call justice?
Consensus Model
The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) offers no-cost assistance to help law enforcement and corrections agencies
implement current and emerging technologies.
Jake Robinson was convicted on a burglary and a drug offense. He was given a sentence of six years in prison for both offenses. These sentences were to run concurrently. How many years would he spend in prison?
Which model of criminal justice assumes that the efforts of the component parts of the system are fragmented, leading to a criminal justice nonsystem?
Conflict Model
T/F Herbert Packer is credited with creating the crime-control model of criminal justice.
Which stage in the criminal justice process involves taking pictures and fingerprints of the suspect?
T/F A consecutive sentence is one that consists of two or more sentences that have been imposed simultaneously after conviction for more than one offense, and that are to be served at the same time.
Which of the following terms is defined as the principle of fairness or the ideal of moral equity?
T/F Public-order advocates primarily seek to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice.
Due process includes all of the following basic elements except
handpicked, partial jury with jurisdictional authority over the case.
If a defendant waives the right to a jury trial, what type of trial will he or she have?
________ describes a society that is home to a multitude of different cultures.
The ________ Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is concerned with the criminal defendant's right to a jury trial.
Which of the following advocates would support the interests of society over those of an individual?
public-order advocates
T/F Guilty pleas must always be accepted by the judge.
The modern justice process begins with
The preliminary hearing is used to decide all but which one of the following?
Whether the defendant is guilty
At which stage in the criminal justice process does the defendant enter a plea?
Who returns an indictment?
The grand jury
Criminal justice involves all of the following elements except
the array of procedures and activities having to do with private rights and remedies sought by civil action.
Which of the following terms refers to the necessary level of belief that allows the police to make an arrest?
Probable cause
T/F Public-order advocates believe the interests of society take precedence over individual rights.
During arrest and before questions, defendants are usually advised of their constitutional rights as enumerated in the famous Supreme Court decision of
Miranda v.Arizona.
Multiculturalism is usually linked with what other term?
________ refers to crime-fighting strategies that have been scientifically tested and are based on social science research.
Evidence based practice
T/F An indictment is a formal written accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense.
T/F Consecutive sentence allows the offender to serve two or more sentences at the same time.
In the criminal justice process, a(n) ________ has to occur before a(n) ________ can take place.
arrest; booking
T/F Civil justice concerns itself with fairness in relationships among citizens, government agencies, and businesses in private matters that involve contractual obligations, business dealings, hiring practices, and equality of treatment.
T/F Guilty pleas are a rare occurrence.
One purpose of ________ is to provide an opportunity for bail.
the first appearance before the judge
T/F A consecutive sentence is one that consists of two or more sentences that have been imposed simultaneously after conviction for more than one offense, and that are to be served at the same time.
Criminal justice refers to the aspects of ________ that concern violations of criminal law.
social justice
________ refers to understandings built up through common usage and also to decisions rendered by courts in previous cases.
Which model emphasizes individual rights?
due-process model
Which model emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders?
Crime control model
About ________ percent of sentences are imposed in criminal cases because of guilty pleas rather than trials.
Which Supreme Court case holds that a defendant may be entitled to a jury trial for minor offenses if he or she can show that additional penalties viewed together with the maximum prison term are so severe that legislators determined the offense is a serious one?
Blanton v. Las Vegas
Which of the following advocates would support the interests of society over those of an individual?
public-order advocates
The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) offers no-cost assistance to help law enforcement and corrections agencies
implement current and emerging technologies.
________ is the scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders.
Scientific research into the operations of the criminal justice system was encouraged by which federal act?
Safe Streets and Crime Control Act of 1968
All of the following rights are stated in the Miranda warning except
"You have the right to bail."
If a defendant "stands mute" at his or her arraignment, what plea will be entered by the judge?
Not guilty
T/F Every criminal defendant, even those who commit petty offenses, has a right under the Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution to a trial by jury
T/F A trial is the examination of the issues of fact and law in a case for the purpose of reaching a judgment of conviction or acquittal of the defendant.
Which of the following terms means procedural fairness?
Due Process
T/F Criminal trials are expensive and time-consuming.
Which Supreme Court era is remembered for its concern with protecting the innocent against massive power of the state in criminal proceedings?
Warren Court
Which of the following advocates would support the protection of personal freedoms and civil rights?
Individual Rights Advocates
When an offender receives a ________ sentence, he or she serves one sentence after another is completed.
A murderer who kills at two or more locations with almost no time break between murders is a ________.
spree killer
Clearances are based primarily on
UCR/NIBRS terminology may differ from ________ definitions of crime.
Nonforcible rape with a victim younger than the age of consent is generally defined as
statutory rape.
________ is the unauthorized duplication of software or the illegal transfer of data from storage medium to another.
Software piracy
T/F When women are the victims of violent crime they are less likely to be injured than men.
Most hate crimes are motivated by
Racial hatred
An incident-based reporting system that collects detailed data on every single crime occurrence.
All of the following crimes are UCR/NIBRS Part I offenses except
Drug use
A criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin is called
hate crime
T/F Women are victimized less frequently than men in every major crime category except rape.
The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
provides for a five-day waiting period before the purchase of a handgun.
Murder is considered a
violent crime
What type of terrorism describes the unlawful use of force or violence by a group whose activities transcend national boundaries?
T/F Most murders are perpetrated by offenders classified as strangers.
For which of the following crimes would you find information in the National Crime Victimization Survey?
T/F Property crimes typically have lower clearance rates than personal/violent crimes.
Each of the following are UCR/NIBRS violent crime offenses except
Approximately how many law enforcement agencies provide crime data to the FBI for the UCR?
What term describes a classification of crimes along a particular dimension, such as legal categories, offender motivation, victim behavior, or the characteristics of individual offenders?
crime typology
T/F Older victims are more likely to attempt to protect themselves than are younger ones.
T/F Most occurrences of motor vehicle theft are reported to law enforcement agencies.
The theft of farm animals would be classified as
Larceny - theft
Any wilful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, and so on is termed
________ are the most common target of robbers.
Which of the following agencies is responsible for compiling the NCVS?
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS)
Which index crime has the highest clearance rate?
Which of the following is not considered larceny?
stealing a car
Research done by the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) points to
rising violent crime in American cities.
According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, the elderly
have the lowest rate of crime victimization of of any age group.
Which of the following is not a element of crime?
a. actus reus
b. mens rea
c. the concurrence of act and intent
d. motive
The body of rules and regulations that define and specify the nature of punishments for offenses of a public nature for wrongs committed against the state or society.
criminal law
Which of the following would not be categorized as a felony?
petty theft
T/F Corpus delicti refers to the facts that show a crime has occurred.
A minor violation of the criminal law, sometimes described as ticketable.
Which of the following terms refers to gathering, transmitting, or losing information related to the national defense in such a manner that the information becomes available to enemies of the United States?
Which type of law refers to the body of regulations that the government creates to control the activities of industry, business, and individuals?
administrative law
________ are generally more serious than ________, but less serious than ________.
Misdemeanors; offenses; felonies
A criminal offense punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facility for at least one year.
T/F In 2003 Brian P. Regan was convicted of trying to sell classified documents to prewar Iraq and China. Is it true or false that his crime was espionage?
When the defendant is incapable of understanding the nature of charges and proceedings, he will be declared
incompetent to stand trial.
Bob runs a stop sign. He didn't see the sign and he had no intention of breaking the law. He is guilty of
a strict liability offense.
A legal principle that ensures that previous judicial decisions are authoritatively considered and incorporated into future cases.
T/F Typically, civil suits seek punishment, not compensation.
The essential features of a crime are known as the ________ the crime.
elements of
The Constitution prohibits the enactment of ________ laws, which make acts committed before the laws in question were passed punishable as crimes.
ex post facto
T/F Causation refers to the fact that the concurrence of a guilty mind and a criminal act may produce or cause harm.
The principle of recognizing previous decisions as precedents to guide future deliberations is called
stare decisis.
The main objective of a civil lawsuit is to
seek compensation.
Murder, rape, and robbery all fall under what branch of modern law?
substantive criminal law
What term describes an offense not yet completed?
Which type of law covers practices in the areas of customs, immigration, and product safety?
The part of the law that specifies the methods to be used in enforcing substantive law.
procedural law
Which Supreme Court case states that prisoners who become insane while incarcerated cannot be executed?
Ford v. Wainwright
Which crime best describes an attempt to overthrow the government of the society of which one is a member?
The maxim that an orderly society must be governed by established principles.
rule of law
Bob is sitting on a park bench minding his own business when an undercover police officer comes up to Bob and talks him into buying some marijuana. Then the officer arrests Bob for possession of marijuana. Bob can claim the defense of
Which type of law is enacted by a government body or agency having the power to make law?
statutory law
T/F Felonies are serious crimes.
To avoid claims of entrapment, police officers must not
engage in an activity that would improperly induce a person to commit a crime.
Which policing strategy reorganizes conventional patrol strategies into integrated and versatile police teams assigned to a fixed district?
team policing
Which of the following is typically not a function of a sheriff's department?
appoint a local coroner
T/F Police chiefs are elected, and the mayor usually appoints sheriffs.
The FBI headquarters are named after
J. Edgar Hoover
The FBI headquarters is located in what city?
Washington D.C.
T/F A decentralized state police agency often operates with two agenciesa highway patrol and a state bureau of investigation.
What federal agency is responsible for managing the database of DNA profiles?
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Which local law enforcement official is responsible for serving court papers, maintaining security within courtrooms, and running the county jail?
T/F James Q. Wilson's service style of policing is based on order maintenance.
Semipermanent assignment of officers to particular neighborhoods is called
team policing
What decade is considered the "heyday" of scientific police management?
The legalistic style of policing
enforces the letter of the law.
Which of the following is not an element of community policing?
centralization of command
Some authors have warned that the police subculture focuses almost exclusively on
What may be the definitive book on community policing?
Trojanowicz's Community Policing
T/F Community policing is not well suited to the new role local police must play in counterterrorism.
What state was the first to centralize its state police force?
Which police strategy emphasizes an increased capacity to deal with crimes that are not well controlled by traditional methods?
strategic policing
What is the best way to describe police subculture?
a particular set of values characterize of the police
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment established that
preventive patrol does not affect citizen fear of crime.
What name is most closely associated with the concept of "policing styles" ?
James Q. Wilson
According to a 2001 Bureau of Justice Statistics study, what percentage of local police departments had full-time officers engaged in some form of community policing?
T/F Socialization into the police subculture commences with new recruits.
In what year was the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration established?
What acronym describes Chicago's comprehensive community-based policing program?
Which of the following is not one of the three major levels of law enforcement?
In what year did the FBI begin as the Bureau of Investigation?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the reform era of American policing?
Police stressed their role of service to the community.
T/F Wilson's legalistic style of policing has been referred to as laissez-faire policing because officers avoid disputes that do not break the law.
In what era of policing did police departments focus most of their resources on solving "traditional" crimes such as murder and rape?
the reform era
T/F Community policing is not well suited to the new role local police must play in counterterrorism.
T/F The key to community policing is a partnership between the police and the community.
T/F Socialization into the police subculture commences with new recruits.
A centralized law enforcement agency
combines criminal investigations with patrol of state highways.
T/F Police-community relations (PCR) were a product of the tumultuous 1960s.
The political era of American policing was characterized by
police serving the interests of politicians.
Which agency would not be encompassed by the term local police?
State Police
Why doesn't police response time result in a significant number of arrests?
Citizens do not report the event to the police until a considerable amount of time passes.
T/f Police chiefs are elected, and the mayor usually appoints sheriffs.
Community policing is best characterized by which of the following?
providing service to citizens
________ is when law enforcement officers exercise choice while carrying out their duties.
Police discretion
Which of the following federal law enforcement agencies would most likely investigate a computer crime?
Where is the nation's largest law enforcement agency with about 38,000 sworn officers?
New York
T/F Quality-of-Life offenses are major law violations such as murder.
To elicit a confession, police departments cannot hire professionals skilled in the art of psychological manipulation because of the decision in the case of
Leyra v. Denno.
Which of the following cases emphasizes the totality of circumstances approach?
Illinois v. Gates
T/F Officers only need to provide Miranda warnings in those situations involving custodial interrogation.
Which U.S. Supreme Court case was responsible for the creation of the exclusionary rule?
Weeks v. U.S.
Which of the following court cases is not an emergency search case?
Chimel v. California
T/F Probable cause is necessary for an arrest under any circumstance.
The plain-view doctrine was set out in
Harris v. U.S.
An officer knocks on the door of a suspected drug dealer, who invites the officer into the house. While in the kitchen, the officer notices a marijuana plant on the windowsill. The officer may legally seize the plant under the ________ doctrine.
Which of the following Supreme Court cases diminished the scope of the exclusionary rule?
Illinois v. Rodriguez
This rule requires that incriminating evidence be seized by police according to the Constitutional specifications of due process or it will not be allowed as evidence in court.
exclusionary rule
Which Supreme Court ruling applied the principles developed in Weeks v. U.S. to trials in state courts?
Mapp v. Ohio
Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court cases held that electronic eavesdropping was a search and seizure under the Fourth Amendment?
Katz v. U.S.
A stop under Terry v. Ohio must be based on
a reasonable suspicion.
Which 1960s U.S. Supreme Court made the exclusionary rule applicable to criminal prosecutions at the state level?
Warren Court
Which of the following Supreme Court cases is concerned with search incident to lawful arrest?
U.S. v. Robinson
Jake and Mary are married and own their home. The police come to the house and ask for permission to search the house for drugs. Jake gives his consent to the search, but Mary says no because she has hidden some drugs in the kitchen. The police come in and search, over Mary's objection, since Jake said it was okay. They find Mary's drugs.
The drugs cannot be used at Mary's trial because she did not consent to the search.
T/F A "knowing waiver" of rights requires that the defendant be able to understand the consequences of not invoking the Miranda rights.
T/F The U.S. Supreme Court has held that the use of a drug-sniffing dog during a routine and lawful traffic stop is permissible and may not even be a search within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment.
Silverthorne Lumber v. U.S. is responsible for describing what principle of Fourth Amendment processes?
fruit of the poisoned tree doctrine
T/F Officers are usually required to submit an affidavit to a magistrate or prosecutor in order to obtain an arrest warrant.
T/F The U.S. Supreme Court established the public safety exception to the Miranda rule in New York v. Quarles.
Which of the following cases is not concerned with the exclusionary rule?
Harris v. U.S
T/F In 2006 the USA PATRIOT Act was repealed.
Which famous 1966 U.S. Supreme Court case provided for the advisement of rights to criminal suspects prior to questioning?
Miranda v. Arizona
Unreasonable searches and seizures are prohibited by the
4th Amendment
Unless the suspect gives consent or there is some emergency circumstance, an officer must have an arrest warrant to enter a suspect's private residence. This was established in
Payton v. New York.
Which legal principle excludes from introduction at trial any evidence resulting from an illegal search or seizure?
exclusionary rule
During which Supreme Court Justice's tenure did the rights of individuals expand dramatically?
Earl Warren
The 1984 U.S. Supreme Court case U.S. v. Leon established
the good-faith exception.
This Supreme Court case has become the basis for "stop and frisk."
Terry v. Ohio
The abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain.
police corruption
Officers who have adopted the police working personality are often all of the following except
Which of the following is not a benefit of educated police officers?
better handgun skills
A recent study by the FBI found that most slain officers
were good-natured and well liked by the community and the department.
Historically, officers were allowed to use deadly force to prevent the escape of a suspected felon. This was known as the
Fleeing Felon Rule.
Which of the following is not a prominent private security firm?
T/F A 2006 study found that African-American police executives have significant problems being accepted by their peers.
Which type of police corruption identified by the Knapp Commission involves the active seeking of illicit money-making opportunities by officers?
Which of the following was not a recommendation made in the National Institute of Justice's report titled,Police Integrity: Public Service With Honor?
involving more citizens in overseeing police activity
Which Supreme Court case is not directly relevant to police civil liability issues?
Maurice Turner v. Fraternal Order of Police
According to the Status of Women in Policing Survey, about what percentage of U.S. law enforcement officers is female?
The Hallcrest Report II provides the results of an analysis of what type of law enforcement agency?
private security
T/F Most police departments require new officers to have a four-year degree.
The pay of police officers
is going up, due to increased professionalism.
Private security personnel differ from public police in that
they secure private interests.
T/F There was a significant decline in police deaths from all causes in 2008.
The collection and analysis of information to produce an intelligence end product designed to inform the police decision making at both the tactical and strategic levels.
intelligence-led policing
T/F The Supreme Court gives qualified immunity to officers to protect them from lawsuits if the officers believed their actions were lawful based on the information they possessed at the time.
A research project on female officers in Massachusetts found that female officers
Are extremely dedicated to their work
What is the meaning of the term grass-eaters as a form of police corruption?
officers who accept small bribes and minor services from citizens
Independent or proprietary commercial organizations that provide protective services to employers on a contractual basis are known as
private protective services.
T/F Most police officers who are shot and killed are killed in shoot outs with three or more gunmen.
T/F Information compiled, analyzed, and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity is known as the police subculture.
T/F Less-lethal weapons cannot offer a potential solution to incidents of "suicide by cop."
T/F Stress is a natural component of police work.
What case supports drug testing of police officers based on reasonable suspicion that drug abuse is occurring?
Maurice Turner v. Fraternal Order of Police
Private security personnel
protect lives and private property.
T/F Profiling was originally intended to help catch drug couriers attempting to enter the country.
The research reported in Enhancing Police Integrity, published by the Department of Justice, found that a police department's ethical standards are most effected by
clearly understood and implemented policies and rules.
What division in a police department investigates charges that officers are guilty of wrongdoing?
Internal affairs
A ________ suit is based on an act passed by Congress in 1871 to ensure the civil rights of men and women of all races.
section 1983
Which of the following is not a reason for the rapid growth of the private security industry?
public law enforcement agencies requesting the help of private security
Since September 11th, the need to share ________ across jurisdictions has become apparent.
Criminal intelligence
In 2004 the International Association of Chiefs of Police found fault with America's homeland security strategy because it
was developed without seeking the advice of local public safety organizations.
T/F A Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) found that police chiefs strongly believe that they can contribute to terrorism prevention by utilizing community policing networks.
Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court cases specified the conditions under which deadly force could be used to apprehend a suspected felon?
Tennessee v. Garner
Private security personnel
protect lives and private property.
T/F Many federal law enforcement agencies require college degrees for entry-level positions.
T/F Officers who are classified as meat-eaters actively seek out illegal money-making opportunities.
Which type of police corruption identified by the Knapp Commission involves the active seeking of illicit money-making opportunities by officers?
Police subculture is transmitted primarily
through informal socialization.
T/F Local, state, and federal policing agencies combined far outnumber people employed in private security.
Barker and Carter describe acts of corruption that further the organizational goals of law enforcement as
abuse of authority.