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75 Cards in this Set

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1. Causative agent of nausea, vomiting (onset < 6 hr) after eating cold cuts, or potato salad, or mayonnaise, or custards
Staphylococcus aureus
2. Rapid-onset food poisoning is mediated by what component of staphylococcus
3. Tx of staphylococcal food poisoning
4. Microbial cause of nausea and vomiting, +/- diarrhea (onset < 6 hr) after eating reheated rice
Bacillus cereus
5. Bacterial spores are resistant to heat due to what component
dipicolinic acid core
6. Microbial cause of nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea w/ rapid (onset >6 hr) after eating reheated meat or gravy
Clostridium perfringens
7. Most likely cause of persistent dyspepsia in a pt not receiving NSAIDs is
Helicobacter pylori
8. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma
H. pylori colonization
9. Indications to treat H. pylori-associated PUD
Presence of organism
10. Standard first-line abx for PUD due to H. pylori is
PPI + clarith + amox
11. Cause of acute onset of diarrhea with rice-water stools, vomiting, dehydration during travel to South America
Vibrio cholerae
12. Pathophysiology of cholera is due to what mechanism
A-B toxin causes ↑ cAMP
13. Cholera pathogen is isolated from stool by culture on selective medium called
thiosulfate-citrate-buffered sucrose (TCBS) agar
14. The comma-shaped cholera organisms are microscopically similar to
15. Tx of cholera involves
Rehydration (tet in severity)
16. Secretory diarrhea, fever and vomiting during travel are caused by
Enterotoxic E. coli
17. Secretory diarrhea w/ fatty, foul-smelling stools in campers, hikers; also day-care outbreaks is caused by
Giardia lamblia
18. Following ingestion of 15-25 cysts, excysted trophozoites adhere at brush border of enterocytes and contribute to malabsorption. TOW
19. Dx of giardiasis is confirmed by
Stool antigen (+)
20. Giardiasis is specifically treated with
21. Protracted, secretory diarrhea w/ large fluid loss in AIDS is caused by (clue: acid-fast organisms)
Cryptosporidium >> Cyclospora > Isospora
22. Frank bloody diarrhea, after eating undercooked meats or drinking fruits drinks, is caused by prepared foods or water, contaminated w/
E. coli O157:H7
23. Pathogenesis of hemorrhagic enterocolitis caused by E. coli involves
Shiga toxin (a cytotoxin)
24. Complication of hemorrhagic enterocolitis in children
hemolytic uremic syndrome
25. Profuse diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and dehydration in infants is caused by
26. Mechanism of rotaviral diarrhea involves
Villus destruction
27. Infantile watery diarrhea and fever are caused by
Adenovirus 40,41
28. Outbreak of nausea, vomiting, fever in adults is caused by
29. Cause of nausea/vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea +/- bloody 12-48h after eating eggs or poultry or peanut butter
Non-typhoidal Salmonella
30. Abx treatment in acute gastroenteritis due to Salmonella spp. is not warranted to avoid
carrier (in bile ducts) state
31. Abx used only to treat septic phase of salmonella gastroenteritis is
32. Cause of fevers (>103°), headaches; macular rash on torso (“rose spots”) abdominal pain and little diarrhea later; PE: bradycardia; hepatosplenomegaly (+/-) in a pt with hx of travel (to tropics)
Salmonella typhi
33. Cause of diarrhea w/ occult blood, abdominal cramping and fever, 2d after ingestion of poultry-contaminated salad
Campylobacter jejuni
34. Abx to treat campylobacter enteritis with high fevers in pregnancy, and HIV is
35. Cause of dysentery-like illness with fever + abdominal cramps, tenesmus + blood & mucus in children
Shigella sonnei
36. Dysentery due to invasive Shigella spp. in elderly is treated with
37. Cause of dysentery-like illness (+/- pseudoappendicitis or pseudo-crohn syndrome) in the northern region after eating cheese
Yersinia enterocolitica
38. Cause of dysentery-like illness in a patient w/ hx of broad-spectrum abx use
Clostridium difficile
39. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is mediated by toxins
A (enterotoxin) + B (cytotoxin).
40. Lab confirmation of CDAD does not require stool Cx, but is based on
EIA for stool toxins A or B
41. Besides rehydration and cessation of inciting meds, CDAD is treated with
Metronidazole (mild) or oral vancomycin (severe/relapse)
42. Health-care associated (nosocomial) spread of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and protracted outbreak is due to
Fecal-oral and/or contact w/ environmental spores
43. Hx of abdominal pain, tenesmus, stools with mucus + blood in a patient, who recently traveled to tropics; CBC: eosinophilia. TOW
Amebic dysentery
44. Stool microscopy to confirm amebic dysentery should reveal characteristic trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica w/
endocytosed RBCs(distinction from luminal ameba)
45. Rx of amebic dysentery involves
Metronidazole + iodoquinol
46. Abscesses in liver or peritonitis in travelers w/ or w/o hx of amebic dysentery is confirmed by
Serology for E. histolytica
47. A boar hunter develops dysentery after eating meat at campsite; O & P test should reveal a ciliate parasite, known as
Balantidium coli
48. Most likely cause of chronic abdominal pain, diarrhea; intestinal obstruction; cholangitis; liver abscess, in children
Ascaris lumbricides
49. Ova & Parasite test using microscopy for oval eggs (with a thick coarse shell) in stool confirms
50. A child has stomach ache, distended abdomen, poor appetite. “Pearl-colored earthworm”-like organisms in the stool. Major immune response against this infection
51. DOC of ascariasis is
52. Vomiting, cramping, diarrhea, epigastric pain, weight loss in an immigrant from developing country is caused by
Strongyloides stercoralis
53. DOC of strongyloidosis is
54. Pt w/ AIDS (low CD4+ counts) develops pulmonary infiltrates (+ eosinophilia) and/or gram negative sepsis. TOW
Invasive strongyloidosis
55. Weakness, fatigue, lightheadedness, dyspnea, pruritis; pallor; iron-deficiency anemia; eosinophilia (hx of outdoor activity). TOW
Hookworm (Necator americanas) infection
56. Fever, periorbital edema, subconjunctival hemorrhages, muscle weakness, and rash, after eating undercooked pork (Lab: eosinophilia., ↑CPK, ↑LDH &). TOW
57. Abdominal pain, bloating, altered appetite after ingestion of sushi. CBC: megaloblastic anemia; leukocytosis/eosinophilia. TOW
Diphyllobothriasis (fish tapeworm)
58. Dx of tape worm infection is confirmed by
Proglottids in stool
59. Tape worm infections are treated with broad-spectrum agent
60. Cause of fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly in an immigrant from Africa or Orient; pt recalls wading in stagnant water. RUQ ultrasound (+); CBC: eosinophilia
Schistosoma mansoni (Africa) S. japonicum (Far East)
61. Microscopy of stool in chronic stage of schistosomiasis reveals
Large eggs with lateral spine.
62. Chronic stage of schistosomiasis is treated with
63. Patient with acute jaundice is HAV IgM (+); household contact should receive for prophylaxis
Inactivated HAV vaccine
64. Patient with jaundice for < 1 week has HBsAg (+), Anti-HBc IgM (+). TOW
Acute HBV infection
65. Multiple sex partners, IDU, infants born to infected mothers are risk groups for which hepatitis virus
66. This is an enveloped, double stranded DNA virus w/ ss-break; transmitted by infective body fluids. TOW
67. This asymptomatic man has hep serology profile of HBsAg (-), Anti-HBs (+), Anti-HBc IgG (+), Anti-HBc IgM (-). TOW
Resolved hepatitis B
68. This man has jaundice and is HBsAg (+) > 6 months, Anti-HBs (-), HBeAg (+), Anti-HBc IgG (+), HBV DNA > 20,000 IU/ml. TOW
Chronic active hepatitis B
69. This man has jaundice and is HBsAg (+) > 6 months, HBeAg (+) and evidence of necroinflammation. He should receive
Peg-IFNα 2a + lamivudine (or cidofovir)
70. This man has no jaundice, but HBsAg (+) >6 months, Anti-HBs (-), Anti-HBc IgG (+), HBeAg (-), persistently normal ALT. TOW
Inactive HBsAg carrier
71. This man, at the time of annual physical exam, reveals Anti-HBs (+) and other markers are (-). TOW
HBV immunized
72. Virologic confirmation of chronic jaundice in a HBV-immunized pt w/ IDU or hemodialysis is based on
73. More chronicity of HCV (than HBV) is due to immune-evasive quasispecies generated during replication (in blood) of
error-prone HCV RNA virus
74. Fulminant hepatitis in a patient, who has multiple sexual partners and is HBsAg (+); HBcIgM (-), can be fatal due to what
HDV superinfection.
75. Cause of acute onset of jaundice, nausea, right-upper quadrant pain, hepatomegaly in pregnant women in India