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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The eradication of all organisms, including bavterial endospores and viruses, although not prions, in or on an object.
Physical or chemical agent used to inhibit or destroy microorganisms on inanimate objects.
The ablity to kill bacteria.
The smallest amount of the drug that will inhibit growth and reproduction of the pathogen. Can be measured via a both dilution test, Etest, or diffusion susceptibility test.
Opportunistic Pathogen
Microorganisms that cause disease when the immune system is suppressed, when microbial antagonism is reduced, or when introduced into an abnormal area of the body.
Any adverse internal condition severe enough to interfere with normal body functioning.
Transient flora/ Microbiota
Type of normal microbiota that remains in the body for only a few hours, days or monts before disappearing. Cannot persist because of competition from other microorganisms, elimination by the body's defense cells, or chemical and physical changes in the body that dislodge them.
The total number of cases of a disease in a given area or population during a given period of time.
Fecal infection
Spread of pathogenic microorganisms in feces to the mouth, such as results from drinking sewage-contaminated water.
Objective manifestations of a disease that can be observed or measured by others.
Study of the occurence, distribution, and spread of disease in humans.
A disease that occurs at a greater than normal frequency for a given area or population.
Indirect transmission
Process by whichc auxotrophic mutans are isolated and cultured.
Object inadvertently used to transfer pathogens to new hosts e.g. glass, towel
Disease that is naturally spread form usual animal host to humans.
Etiologic agent
Agent that causes disease
Free of microbial contamination
The condition of pathogens being present in the blood and causing signs of illness.
Bacterial growth is stopped but not killed.
Interplay between drugs that results in efficacy that exceeds the efficacy of either drug alone.
Condition in which a patient infected with hepatitis B virus is subsequently infected with hepatitis D virus.
A meausre of pathogenicity.
The number of new cases of a disease in a given area or population during a given period of time.
Systemic infection
Diseases caused by microbes via the blood and lymph that affect other body systems.
Chronic infection
Any disease that deevelops slowly, usually with less severe symptoms, and is continual or recurrent.
Subjective characteristic of a disease that can be felt by the patient alone.
A disease that occurrs in only a few scattered cases within a given area or population during a given period of time.
The occurence of an epidemic on more than one continent simultaneously.
A cloud of water droplets, which travels more than 1 meter in airborne transmission and less than 1 meter in droplet transmission.
Passive or mechanical vector
Housefly, cockraoch, or other animal that passively carries pathogens to new hosts on its feet or other body parts and is not infected by the pathogens it carries.
Communicable disease
Any infectious disease that comes either directly or indirectly from another host.
Member of a parasitic relationship that supports the parasite.
Living or nonliving continuous source of infectious disease.
The use of physical or chemical agents to inhibit or destroy microorganisms on inanimate objects. In water treatment, ozone, UV light, or chlorination kill most microorganisms.
Chemical used to inhibit or kill microorganisms on skin or tissue.
The use of heat to kill pathogens and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms in food and beverages.
A microorganism capable of causing disease.
Successful invasion of the body by a pathogenic microorganism
Normal/indigenous flora
Microorganisms that colonize the surfaces of the human body without normally causing disease. They may be resident or transient.
Presence in the blood of poisons called toxins.
Acute infection
Any disease that develops rapidly but lasts only a short time, whether it resolves in convalescence or death.
Nosocomial infection
A disease acquired in a health care facility.
A disease that occurs at a relatively stable frequency within a given area or population.
Spread of pathogens from one host to another via aerosols, which exit the body during exhaling, coughing, and sneezing and travel less than 1 meter.
Biological vector
Biting arthropod or other animal that transmits pathogens and serves as host for the multiplication of the pathogen during some stage of the pathogen's life cycle.
Non-communicable disease
An infectious disease that arises from outside of hosts or from normal microbiota.
A communicable disease that is easily transmitted from a reservoir or patient.
Member of a parasitic relationship that supports the parasite.