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243 Cards in this Set

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Koplik's spots

Measles: Symptoms

Lockjaw, convulsions

Tetanus: Symptoms

Negri bodies, hydrophobia, salivation

Rabies: Symptoms

Rash on palms and soles

Rocky Mountain Spotted fever, and secondary Syphilis: Symptoms

Non painful chancre

Primary syphilis: Symptoms

Gummas

tertiary syphilis: Symptoms

Erythema migranes, Bull's eye rash

Lyme Disease: Symptoms

Buboe

Plague: Symptoms

Rice Watery Stool

Cholera: Symptoms

Flaccid paralysis


Botulism: Symptoms

Grayish pseudomembrane on throat

Diphitheria: Symptoms

Ghon complexes

Tuberculosis: Symptoms

Salk Polio Vaccine

Killed

Rabies Vaccine

Killed

Killed Typhoid Fever Vaccine

Killed

Oral Cholera Vaccine

Killed

Hepatitis A Vaccine

Killed

Plague Vaccine

Killed

Injected Influenza

Killed

Sabin Polio Oral Vaccine

Attenuated Live

Small Pox Vaccine

Attenuated Live

Chicken pox vaccine

Attenuated Live

Measles Vaccine

Attenuated live

Rubella Vaccine

Attenuated Live

Mumps Vaccine

Attenuated Live

Oral Typhoid fever vaccine

Attenuated Live

Tularemia Vaccine

Attenuated live

Influenza flumist nasal

Attenuated Live

Tuberculosis (BCG Vaccine)

Attenuated Live

H. influenzae vaccine

Subunit

S. pneumoniae vaccine

Subunit

N. meningitidis vaccine

Subunit

Tetanus toxoid vaccine

Subunit

Diphtheria toxoid

Subunit

Hepatitis B( HBsAg) Vaccine

Subunit

Anthrax (Acellular) Vaccine

Subunit

Pertuissis (Acellular) DTaP

Subunit

Papilloma Gardasil

Subunit

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Vector

Insect Vector: tick

Plague Vector

Insect Vector: Flea

Lyme Disease Vector

Insect Vector: Ixodes tick

Tularemia Vector

Insect Vector: tick

Malaria Vector

Insect Vector: Anopheles mosquito

West Nile encephalitis Vector

Insect Vector: Mosquito

Anthrax Vector

Animal Vector: cattle

Rabies Vector

Animal Vector

Plague Vector

Animal Vector: rats


Tularemia Vector

Animal Vector: rabbits

Tetanus: Mode of transmission

Direct Contact

Dermatophytes (tinea): Mode of transmission

Direct Contact

Impetigo: Mode of transmission

Direct Contact

Erysipelas: Mode of transmission

Direct Contact

Warts: Mode of transmission

Direct Contact

Staph Skin infections: Mode of transmission



Direct Contact

Leprosy: Mode of transmission

Direct Contact

Trachoma: Mode of transmission

Direct Contact

Polio: Mode of Transmission

Oral-fecal route

Hepatitis A: Mode of Transmission

Oral-fecal route

Hepatitis E: Mode of Transmission

Oral-fecal route

Typhoid Fever: Mode of Transmission

Oral-fecal route

Shigellosis: Mode of Transmission

Oral-fecal route

Traveler's diarrhea: Mode of Transmission

Oral-fecal route

Cholera: Mode of Transmission

Oral-fecal route

Campylobacter: Mode of Transmission

Oral-fecal route

Hepatitis B: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

Hepatitis C: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

Hepatitis D: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

HIV: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

Gonorrhea: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

Syphilis: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

Herpes 1&2: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

Papilloma warts: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

Chlamydia: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

Ebola: Mode of Transmission

Sexual Transmission

All meningitis: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

All pneumonia: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Common Cold: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Influenza: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Small pox: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Chickenpox: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Mumps: Mode of Transmission



Respiratory

Measles: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Rubella: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Cold Sores (HSV-1): Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Infectious mononucleosis: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Pulmonary plague: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Leprosy: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Tuberculosis: Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

Pharyngitis ( strep throat): Mode of Transmission

Respiratory

HIV: Transmission

Blood

Hepatitis B: Transmission

Blood

Hepatitis C: Transmission

Blood

Ebola: Transmission

Blood

Rubella: Transmission

Mother to Child

HIV: Transmission

Mother to Child

Hepatitis B: Transmission

Mother to Child

Syphilis: Transmission

Mother to Child

Herpes Infection: Transmission

Mother to Child

Gonorrhea ophthalmia: Transmission

Mother to Child

Nonsense mutation

A mutation that occurs changing a regular codon to a stop codon

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Skin infection found in burn patients, green pus, gram negative rods

Griffith's 1928 experiment

DNA from dead encapsulated bacteria can transform living non-encapsulated bacteria into living encapsulated - Transformation

Septate hyphae

cross walls

Chitin

Fungal cell walls

Fungal reproduction

asexual and sexual

Molds

multicellular

Candida albicans

It is an opportunistic infection that causes disease in immunocompromised patients

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Has a waxy lipid rich components in the cell wall that make it resistant to disinfectants

Borrelia and Treponema

spirochete that have axial filaments

Germicide

Kills microbes

Virucide

kills viruses

Sterilant

destroys all living things

Fungicide

kills yeasts and molds

Bacteriostatic

Keeps any bacteria from growing further

Clorox

Disinfectant

Ultraviolet light

Disinfectant

Betadine

Antiseptic

Glutaraldehyde

Disinfectant and Sterilant

Salmonella enterica

Rod shaped gram negative bacteria

A drug that binds with sterols targets ?

Eukaryotic plasma membranes

Thiomagertia namebiensis

Gram negative giant diplococci that usually inhabit the ocean

Frameshift mutation

When all bases are shifted forwards or backwards due to insertion or deletion

Staphylococci

gram positive in grape like clusters

Streptococci

Gram postive cocci in chains

Miconazole- destroys ergosterols

Used for yeast infection of mucous membrane

Specialized transduction

Virus is a lysogenic, has both bacterial and viral DNA, prophage exists in the bacterial chormosome

Examples of Enterobacteriacae (gram negative rods)

Salmonella, E.coli, shigella, klebsiella

Does not destroy endospores

Pasteurization

Haemophilus influenzae

causes meningitis

UV Light affects?

Two TT's next to each other

Rickettsias

obligate intracellular parasites

Characteristics of Fungi

Cause diseases called mycosis, grow in high salt and sugar concentrations, chemoheterotrophs, may have septate hyphae, survive better at high osmotic pressure

Mycobacterium leprae

gram negative rod, highly resistant to dessication, has mycolic acid in its cell walls

Prions

most difficult to destroy

F+ X F- =

the F- cell becomes a F+

Fusobacterium

strict anaerobic gram negative rod that inhabits the mouth and has tapered ends

Silent mutation occur because ?

the genetic code is redundant

Ringworm infection

Caused by Dermatophytes, only contagious mycotic infection, can be passed through towels and socks

Sterilize a liquid

Filtration

Sex pilius

used for transfer of plasmid in conjugation

Alpha hemolysis

partial green hemolysis on blood agar

Ionizing radiation

Can sterilize plastics and rubber

Candida albicans

thrush

Penicillinase

cleaves beta lactam rings

Chlamydia

obligate intracellular parasite, elementary body is infectious, they have a unique life cycle

Candida albicans

fungus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Gram positive cocci

Bacillus anthracis

gram positive rod

Shigella dysenteriae

Gram negative rod

Moraxella catarrhalis

Gram negative cocci

Transformation

The uptake of naked DNA

Campylobacter

Gram negative spiral organism from bloody stool that can live at 43 Celsius

Bacteriphages

virus that infect bacteria

Ethylene oxide chambers

used to sterilize hospital mattresses

Clostridium and Bacillus

Endospore forming

How to sterilize Glass

Dry heat

Comma shaped gram negative spiral that contaminates water

Vibrio

Lysogenic bacteriophage replication

The phage is inserted into the chromosome

Mycelium

a fungi mass made up of hyphae, threadlike structures

Antiseptic

non toxic to be used on living tissue

Neisseria gonorrhea

gram negative diplococci sexually transmitted

Bacteria resistance

Produce enzymes


Change site


become impermeable


by pass metabolic pathway

Penicillin

have a beta lactam ring, R group determines spectrum of activity, act by inhibiting cell wall synthesis, some people are allergic

Anthrax

generates a resistant form that survives desication and heat

Hfr cell

The F plasmid is incorporated in the bacterial chromosome

Streptococcus pyogenes

Beta hemolyticm gram positive coccus causes strep throat

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

have no cell walls, have sterols in plasma membrane, filterable, no definite shape

Coenocytic hyphae

long filament that has no crosswalls

Antiviral drugs

inhibit viral DNA or RNA synthesis



Antibiotic resistance

overuse of antibiotics, improper use, not finishing prescribed dose, antibiotics in animal feed

Kills pseudomonas

Best advertisement

Missense mutation

point mutation resulting in different amino acid

Fimbriae

Structures in gram negative - virulence factor

Bacterial flagella

Move by spinning like a propeller

Teichoic acid

Cell walls of gram positive

Archae

grow at 95 degrees or above

Strict anaerobe

no catalase or peroxidase production

Give up electron

Oxidation

Van Leewenhoek

first person to observe bacteria through a microscope

Capsule

makes bacteria more infective

Penicillin selectively toxic

Weakens peptidoglycan found in cell walls of bacteria

Ligase

Joins together DNA segments

Antibiotic resistance

Gain a plasmid

Biofilms

are less sensitive to antibiotics, protect mucous membranes, cause infections

Peptidoglycan layer

Cross bridges link tetrapeptides together, contain long polymers of NAG and NAM, Tetrapeptides attach to NAM, Lysozymes break NAG-NAM bonds

Obligate aerobe

superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase

Dogma of genetic information

DNA to RNA to assembly of polypeptide chain

End products of glycolisis

2 pyruvic acid, 2 ATPS, 2 NADH

Fermentation

2 ATP for every one glucose molecule

Photoheterotroph

organism that makes all of its organic compounds and food from organic compounds from sun energy

NADH produced after glycolysis and Krebs cycle

10

Fermentation

production of energy by substrate level phophorulation

Glycolysis

NAD+ is reduced

Transcription

5' to 3'

Structure in gram negative bacteria - Causes fever and shock

Lipid A

Cell Respiration

Produces 38 ATP

Krebs cycle

produces greatest amount of NADH

Okazaki fragments

part of the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA

Prokaryotic outermembrane

only in gram negative, contain endotoxin and lipopolysaccharide, on top of peptidoglycan layer

Pathogenic bacteria

chemoheterotroph

Substrate level phosphorylation

Transfer of high energy phosphate group to ADP, respiration and fermentation, ATP produced in glycolysis, 2 ATP produced from one molecule in Kreb's cycle

Macrophage

Most effective phagocytic cell in the body

Leprosy

Hypopigmentation and loss of sensation in skin

Tetanus

Gram postive endospore former

Neisseria gonorrhea

eye infection in newborn

Streptococcus pyongenes

Group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus: Pharyngitis, Erysipelas, Necrotizing fascitis, impetigo

Smallpox

Largest of all viruses

Artificially acquired active immunity

Vaccinations

Inflammation

Swelling, redness, pain, heat

Toxoid

Inactivated toxin

Endotoxin

Lipid A in gram negative cell wall

Fever

induced by endotoxin or IL-1

Coagulase and Hyaluronidase

Enzymes- Virulence factors

Innate nonspecific immune response

Lacks specificity and memory

Mechanical vector

Carries bacteria on its body from location to location

MRSA symptoms

Boils and carbuncles

Dermatophytes

ringworm and tinea infection

Streptococcus pneumoniae

gram positive diplococcus - alpha hemolysis- meningitis

Prion diseases

Kuru, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie, creutzfield- jacob syndrome

HSV-1

DNA virus- lies dormant and causes cold sores

Components of innate immune response

phagocytosis, fever, lysozome secretion, flow of urine

Helper T cells

CD4+ and mature in thymus

B cells

differentiate into plasma cells and secrete antibodies

Inflammation

involves destroying, walling off pathogen, and tissue repair

cytotoxic T cells

CD8+ and mature in thymus

Infant botulism

gram positive endospore forming rod, due to exotoxin

Release of non-enveloped viruses

cause most damage to cell

Release of histamines

Increased blood vessel permeability

Uncoating

Step following attachment and entry in animal cell viruses

IgA molecule

binds to 2 antigens

Chlamydia trachomatis

leading cause of blindness around the world, obligate cellular parasite

Neutrophils

first phagocytic cell reaches inflammation cell

Chlamydia prevents formation of phagolysosomes

Avoids being digested

Endotoxins

fever, lipids, cause macrophages to secrete IL-1, decrease blood pressure

IgG

the only antibody that crosses the placenta

IgM

pentamer that is mainly produced during the primary immune response

IgE

Allergic reactions

IgD

antibody with no protective function

IgA

dimer found on mucous membrane

Secondary immune response

humoral and cell mediated immunity: specificity and memory, lymphocytes, self from nonself, antibody level is much higher than primary immune response

Complement activation

Lyse the pathogen

Causes of menigitis

Neisseria meningitidis, haemophilius influenzae, Listeria moncytogenes, streptococcus pneumoniae

Mechanical or chemical defenses

skin and phagocytosis