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26 Cards in this Set

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Question: _______ first described bacterial cells in a 1684 manuscript by referring to them as “wee animalcules.”
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Who developed the culturing technique to enrich for a certain population of microbial cells from a complex community based on a particular phenotype of interest?
Martinus Beijerinck
Which individual worked with Bacillus during the late 1800s to elucidate heat resistance of microorganisms and later described the life cycle of an endospore-forming bacterium?
Ferdinand Cohn
Who was the first to reveal how certain bacteria can obtain energy from inorganic compounds (such as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds) rather than organic substrates?
Sergei Winogradsky
_______ published the first known sketches of molds in the book Micrographia in 1665, making it the first documented description of microorganisms.
Robert Hooke
Koch used ______ to culture bacterial cells in his laboratory.
In fulfilling the postulates Koch developed, he used ______ as a model animal to conclusively show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the bacterial pathogen that caused tuberculosis.
guinea pigs
The first of Koch’s postulates states the...
disease-causing organism must always be present in animals suffering from the disease but not in healthy animals.
Which of the items below is/are of concern when attempting to fulfill Koch’s postulates?
~ Animals infected do not show the same symptoms as humans
~ The suspected pathogen is present in healthy humans
~ Unable to obtain an axenic (or “pure”) culture
Robert Koch was a trained ______ who initially developed a lot of his germ theory of disease by studying bacteremia of ______.
physician / Bacillus anthracis
Which taxonomic group of microorganisms is primarily responsible for the oxygenation of Earth?
True or False: In the early 1900s, a United States resident was most likely to die from infectious disease, whereas today systemic diseases are the leading cause of death.
How do nodule-forming bacteria help agriculture?
microbially mediated fertilization
The pH inside rumens is relatively ______, especially when compared to human stomachs, and is the location where active microbial populations ______ the cellulosic plant material into usable nutrient sources for the animal.
neutral / ferment
The application of microorganisms to clean up toxic pollutants in the environment is most specifically described as
microbial bioremediation.
The famous French molecular microbiologists François Jacob and Jacques Monod were awarded a Nobel Prize for their work on
~gene regulation by repressor proteins.

~the operon concept.
The production of human proteins (e.g., insulin) by genetically engineered microorganisms is an example of
Which emphasis has affected all of microbiology and continues to have a profound effect on experimental design, including the development of approaches such as transcriptomics?
molecular microbiology
Frederick Sanger and Kary Mullis each received Nobel Prizes for their work in ______ and ______ (respectively), which have fueled the genomics era that microbiology is currently experiencing.
sequencing / PCR
What did Craig Mello and Andrew Fire receive the Nobel Prize for in 2006?
identification of RNA interference
By separating purified crystals of tartaric acid by hand, Pasteur identified
~ chirality.
~ enantiomers.
~ optical isomers
True or False: Pasteur would have likely never been able to provide conclusive data to refute the long-lived germ theory if it were not for his rigid sterile technique.
Which pathogen did Pasteur help treat by developing a vaccine against it?
~ Bacillus anthracis

~ Rabies virus

~ The fowl cholera pathogen Pasteurella multocida
Pasteur studied the asymmetric ______ formed in alcoholic fermentation of beets to suggest that it was not an abiotic process and instead required microbes to make alcohol.
amyl alcohol
What was Pasteur’s purpose in using a swan neck–shaped flask rather than a traditional Erlenmeyer flask for his experiments on spontaneous generation?
to prevent large debris and microbes from entering
Which of the following is NOT a property/process of all living cells?