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183 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What kind of Bacteria act as "Insurance" Policies


By Sleeping Some bacteria

are unaffected by antibiotics

The Process of a virus Jumping from Animal to Human


Bats Carry what pathogens

Ebola, Rabies and Marburg

Body temp of Bats

40 degrees Celcius

Body Temp of Humans

37 Degrees Celcius

Bats produce

ALOT OF Reactive Oxygen Species

Microbiology was founded by

Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek

First name for Microbes


Another Founder of Microbiology

Robert Hooke

Most Often Microorganism are associated with

Disease but most are not harmful

Bacteria Out number cells

10 to1

Good Bacteria

Natural Digestive Flora

4 reasons why Microbiology is Important

Food Production (bread, Beer)

Biodegradation (Organic Pollutants)

Commercial Applications(Antibiotics)


This disease kills more americans than many wars combined


This disease Killed over 10 million people,wiped out the Aztecs

Small Pox

This disease killed 1/3 the population of Europe (25 Million)


What Infections did the first 5 AIDS patients have

Pneumocystis Carinii pneumonia

Name 4 Emerging Diseases

Lyme Disease

West Nile Encephalitis


Mad Cow (Creutzfeld-Jakob)

Re-Emerging Diseases due to Non Vaccinations

Measles,Mumps, Rubella,

Drug resistant strains of a pathogen

Malaria, Tuberculosis, Neisseria

Bacteria Outnumber Mammalian Species

by 10,000

% of all microbial species which can be grown and studied in laboratory

Less than 1%

1st Domain of Living Organisms


2nd Domain of Living Organisms


3rd Domain of Living organisms


Bacteria are

Single Celled Prokaryotes

Prokaryote =


Are Any Bacterial Organelles In a membrane


Bacterial DNA is in

A Nucleoid

Bacteria have 3 shapes

Rod: Cylindrical


Spiral: Spirillium

What Kind of Cell Walls do Bacteria have

Rigid walls with Peptidoglycan

Bacteria Multiply Via

Binary Fission

Archaea in terms of Nucleus


Archaea Shapes are

Similar to bacteria

Archaea divide via

Binary fission

Archaea Cell walls

Lack Peptidoglycan

Genetically Archaea Differ from Bacteria in that Archea

Ribosomal RNA Sequences differ

Extremophiles can live in

High Salt Concentrations (Mono Lake)

High Temperature

Eukarya means

True Nucleus

Eukarya are more/less complex than prokaryotes

More complex

Microbial Members Include

Fungi, algae, protozoa

Protist include

Algae and Protozoa

Multicellular Parasites




Cellular composition of Algae

Singled celled or Multicellular

Algae produce energy via


Algae have

Flagella and cell walls

Algae flagella

are distinct from those of prokaryotes

Big time Algae Entrepreneur

Craig Venter for Biofuels

Cellular composition of Fungi

Single celled (yeast) and Multicellular(molds/Mushrooms)

Fungi get energy from

Degradation of organic materials

Something you would not expect from Fungi

They have a circadian rhythm. Nights might provide better winds for spore release

NeuroToxic Fungus


Cellular Composition of Protozoa

Single Celled

Brain eating Amoeba is

A Protozoa Called Naegleria Fowler

Protozoa get their energy from

Ingesting organic compounds

Non-living members of Microbial word




Cellular composition Viruses, Viroids, Prions

Acellular, not alive,

Viruses nucleic acids are

Nucleic Acids packaged in protein coat

Viruses are known as

Obligate intracellular parasites


Simpler than viruses and consist of a single short piece of RNA with no protective protein coat

Viroids Usually infect

Plants with no evidence of human infection

Prion are defined as

Infectious Protein

Mad Cow

Prions can be described as

A misfolded version of protein found in the brain

Prions work via

Abnormal proteins binding to form fibrils which makes cells unable to function

Prions are resistant to

Standard sterilization procedures

7 kinds of Light Microscopy

Bright Field

Dark Field

Phase Contrast

Differential Interference Contrast


Scanning Laser Microscope(SLM)

Confocal Microscopy

Light microscope can magnify


Electron Microscopy can Magnify


Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

produces images of individual atoms on a surface

2 kinds of Electron Microscopy

TEM (Transition e' Microscope0

SEM (Scan e' Microscope)

3 Principle of Microscopy

Resolution, Magnification and Contrast


Ability to distinguish between 2 objects that are very close together.

Resolution depends on

Quality and type of lens

wavelength of light

Specimen preparation


Apparent increase in size


Determines how easily cells can be seen,

increased by staining

In Bright Field, light

illuminates the entire field evenly

In Dark Field, light

is directed towards the cell at an angle,

this adds contrast to image

Unstained cells are easier to see

Background is darker than bright field

Phase Contrast

Increases contrast by amplifying difference in refractive index

Dense material appears darker

Differential Interference Contrast (DIC)

Two light beams pass through the specimen and then recombine, giving object a 3D feel


Fluorescence Microscopy

Project Specific Wavelength of light onto specimen

Fluorescent labeled areas release light in response

Cells can be naturally fluorescent, have fluorescent proteins or be stained with dyes

Fluorescent bacteria in North Carolina


Scanning Laser Microscope (SLM)

Using Fluorescence you scan see inside and outside


Can be Alive

Confocal Microscopy

Expensive, Fluorescent 3D image

Images are fine slices of of specimen using lasers and mirrors

Electron Microscopy needed for


Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) works by

Transmitting electrons through the specimen producing differences in density inside the specimen and cell wall

Specimen is dead in a vacuum

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) works by

scattering electrons over surface which has been coated with a thin film of metal

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

Sharp probe moves across cells surface

Computer Image so good you can see organelles

No special prep

better resolution that EM

What kind of charge do Basic Dyes have

Positive so it is attracted to negatively charged cell components

What Kind of charge do Acidic Dyes have


Basic Dyes

Stain the cell itself


most often used

Acidic Dyes

Stain to the background adds contrast

Negative staining: cells repel which is why the background is stained


Step 1 of Gram Staining Process

Crystal Violet: Everything is stained

Step 2 of Gram Staining Process

Iodine (Mordant) Kills everything

Step 3 of Gram Staining Process

Alcohol Decolorizer:

Gram (+) stay Purple

Gram (-) are white

Step 4 of Gram Staining Process

Safranin: decolorized Gram (-) is now pink =)

Differential stains Detect

Tuberculosis or Leprosy which have high concentrations of Mycolic ACID

2 kinds Differential Stains

ACID FAST STAINS (Tb and leprosy)


Capsule stains used when

Microbes are surrounded by gel-like layer

Negative stain used with india ink

Fluorescent Dyes and Tags

Can use antibodies or chemicals,

can distinguish between live and dead cells






Short Curved Rod


Long Spiral


Long helical


many Shapes

When cells divide in 1 plane its called

a chain

When cells divide in 2 or more planes perpendicular to one another its called

a packet

When cell divides in several planes at random its called

a cluster

Chains, packets, clusters come together and form


Prokaryotic cell from the inside out



Cytoplasmic Membrane

Cell wall


Pilus extensions

Chemically Alter a compound to bring it across the membrane

Group Translocation

Peptidoglycan is compose of

Alternating units of NAG and NAM and tetra peptide chain

Together they are called a glycan chain

Gram Negative Outer membrane is composed of

Phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

LPS is an

EndoToxin with Lipid A towards the membrane and O antigen away from the membrane

Makes Gram Negative bacteria less sensitive to medications


Region between The Cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane is called

The periplasm

Periplasm Contains

proteins involved in nutrient degradation and transport

Penicillin Interferes with

Peptidoglycan synthesis

Specifically preventing linkage of adjacent glycan chains

Penicillin is more affective against

Gram Positive than Gram negative because outer membrane of Gram negative blocks access

Penicillin has no effect on

Mycoplasma, bc they lack cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane has sterols to increase strength

This Bacteria Mimics host cells surface

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

In terms of structure and cell walls Archaea have

A variety of cell walls

no Peptidoglycan but rather Pseudopeptidoglycan

MANY S LAYERS from sheets of flat proteins

Capsule and slime layers occur

Outside cell wall

Describe the bacterial Capsule

Thick and gelatinous

Slime layer is

Diffuse and Irregular

Capsule and slime layer together are called


The role or function of Glococalyx is

Surface attachment, immune system avoidance and antibiotic resistance

Peritrichous have flagella

Over entire surface

Polar Flagellum

single flagellum at one end of cell


Allows cells to attach to surfaces and exchange DNA via horizontal transfer

Food Proximity of Peritrichous

The Closer you are = more runs

The further you are = more tumbles

The names of Prokaryotic ribosomes

70S made from 30s and 50S

Eukaryotic Ribosomes are


Antibiotics that affect________ do not affect_____

70S 80S

Controlled to provide Buoyancy

Gas Vesicles

Give 2 examples of Endospores

Bacillus, Clostridium

Endospores that survive

•can germinate to become vegetative cell

TB is incredible hard to treat because

of the way it grows

Formula for Bacterial Population

Nt=N0 x 2^n

N0=Initial # of cells

Nt=# of cells at time t

n= the number of cell divisions

Another name for a pure culture

Isogenic Culture

Another name form closed system

Batch Culture

Another Name for Open system

Continuous Culture

Open systems use

Chemostats or Microchemostats aka microfluidic devices

what kind of growth curve do closed system yield

a characteristic growth curve

During lag phase

Bacteria are just getting used to environment.Begin synthesizing enzymes for growth

Log Phase Growth
They start growing as quickly aspossible.

Divide at constant rate

They are happiest here.

This is the phase we study the most

Stationary phase

they run out of food so they stop dividing awaiting more nutrients(food) or sporulate (go to sleep

how much time between lag phase and stationary phase

24 hours

Death Phase
decline in cell # bc theyare dying, not enough nutrients to keep metabolism going. they die at a contestant rate (exponentially) but slower than growth lol

What phase do you try to keep them in , in open systems

Log Phase

During what phase are cultures most sensitive to antibiotics

Log Phase

Other than "growth" what is produced during the log phase

Primary and secondary metabolites

Why are Secondary metabolites produced

nutrients are depleted and water accumulates

During the phase of Prolonged decline

Some may survive and adapt to these worse conditions

Environmental factors affect cell growth


•Oxygen availability

•pH of the environment

•Water availability

•Nutrient availability •


PrefersSmall Amounts of Oxyge
Prefers Oxygen but it can grow inLow oxygen Environment
Can only grow without oxygen
Tolerates Both Equally well
Obligate aerobe
Needs Oxygen

In terms of pH most microbes are


Acidophiles growoptimally at pH

below 5.5

Alkaliphiles grow optimally at pH

Above 8.5

withstand up to 10% solutes
–require highsalt concentrations
•Marine bacteria

•Extreme halophiles

3% and greater than 9 % respectively

what two elements are required for subunits

Carbon and Nitrogen

Key considerations for growth
–Required elements–

Growth factors–

Energy sources

Heterotrophs use

Organic Carbon

Autotrophs use
inorganic carbon as CO2 (carbon fixation
–Trace elements usually available





these trace elements are often limiting

iron and phosphorus

Growth Factors

Amino acids,




synthesizes all cellular components from glucose, has wide metabolic capabilities

Escherichia Coli

unable to synthesize many, requires numerous growth factors


Termed fastidious:
•have complicated nutritional requirements
obtain energy from sunlight
extract energy from chemicals
–energy from sunlight; carbon from CO2
–energy from sunlight; carbon from organiccompounds
–energy from inorganic compounds; carbonfrom CO2
energy and carbon from organic compounds