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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a. exoenzymes
b. endoenzymes
c. cytosol
a. Enzymes that function outside of the cell to break down macromolecules so they can enter the cell
b. Enzymes that function inside of the cell
c. The liquid part of the cytoplasm
State the primary function of bacterial cytoplasm
To carry out most bacterial metabolism.
a. metabolism
b. catabolic reactions
c. anabolic reactions
a. the organized reations that a cell performs.
b. the breaking down of molecules during metabolism
c. the synthesizing of molecules during metabolism.
Define genome
All of an organisms genetic material.
Describe the composition of the bacterial nucleoid.
It is composed of chromosomal DNA.
State the function of histone-like proteins in bacterial DNA.
The proteins bind to the DNA and make it more compact.
State the function of DNA.
DNA determines what chemical reactions an organism can carry out by determining what proteins and enzymes it can synthesize.
State how these antibacterial chemotherapuetic agents affect bacteria:
a. fluoroquinolones
b. trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole
a. they inhibit topoisomerases
b. by blocking sythesis of tetrahydrofolic acid, which bacteria need in order to make nuceotides.
Describe plasmids and indicate their possible benefit to bacteria
Small molecules of extrachromosomal DNA found in some bacteria that code for non-esential traits and can provide an advantage under certain conditions.
Ex: antibiotic resistance.
State generally how antibiotics like neomycin affect bacterial growth.
They bind to one of the subunits, preventing sucessful replication and preventing binary fission.
Name 2 common genera of bacteria capable of producing endospores and state which is an obligate anaerobe.
Bacillus and Clostridium (obligate anaerobe)
Discuss the function of a bacterial endospore.
They serve as resistant, dormant survival forms of organisms.
Describe the structure of a bacterial endospore.
A fully formed endospore has layers (inside to out)consisiting of a cortex, a spore coat, and sometimes an exoporium surrounding the ribosomes, RNA, and enzymes.
Define sporulation and germination.
Sporulation is the act of a bacteria forming an endospore under starvation conditions.
Name 3 infections that may be transmited to humans by endospores.
Anthrax, tetanus, and botulism.
Name 3 major types of photosynthetic bacteria and describe where the photosynthectic area is located
a. Cyanobacteria: photosynthetic area is in a thylakoid.
b. Green bacteria: Photo area in an independant chlorosomes.
c. Purple bacteria: Photo area in membranes that are continuous with cytoplasmic membrane.
State function of the following:
a. cyanophycin granules
b. carboxysomes
c. gas vacuoles
a. store N
b. used in CO2 fixation
c. allow regulation of buoyancy
State function of following:
a. polyhydroxybutyrate and glycogen granules
b. magnetosomes
c. volutin and suflur granules
a. are energy reserves
b. act as tiny magnets
c. volutin srote phosphate and sulfur store sulfer
State the Cheical composition and 2 functions of a bacteria glycocalyx.
It is a viscous polysacchride or polypeptide slime. Its main functions are to resist phagocytic engulfment and to adhere.
Describe how a capsule might resist being phagocytosed by white blood cells.
It can prevent unenhanced phagocytosis attachement by blocking receptors and enhanced by blocking anitbodies.
State the chemical comp. and 3 functions of the S-layer.
It is composed of proteins or glycoproteins in a regularly sructured layer. It protects the bacteria from enzymes, pH and predators, functions as an adhesian, and can protect agains phagocytosis and compliment attack.
List and describe 4 different arrangements of bacterial flagella
Monotrichous: a single flagellum at one pole,
Amphitrichous: a single flagellum at both ends of organism,
Lophotrichous: two or more flagella at one or both poles,
Peitrichous: flagella over entire surface
Compare what happens when a bacterial flagellum rotates counterclockwise to when it rotates clockwise, and relate this to the concentration of an attractant
Clockwise rotation results in a tumbling motion and changes the direction of bacterial movement, while counterclockwise rotation leads to long, straight or curved runs with no change in direction. When the concentration of attractants is high, bacteria have longer runs and tumble less often as they move up the gradient.
Descsribe the basic structure of a bacterial flagellum and state its function
A flagella has 3 parts: a filament, a hook, and a basal body. It is used for locomotion.
Define taxis
A motile response to an environmental stimulus
Describe structure and chemical compsition of bacterial ribosomes and state their function.
They are compsoed of a 50S and a 30S subunit made of rRNA and proteins, which form a 70S whole. They serve as the location for protein synthesis.
State the function of bacterial adhesion pili and bacterial conjugation (sex) pilus
Adhesion pili allow bacteria to colonize the host cells and resist flushing.
Conjugation pili allow bacteria to conjugate and transfer DNA from donor (male) bacterium to recipient (female)
Define bacterial conjugation
Donor (male) bacteria attach their conjugation pili to recipient (female) bacteria and transfer DNA
State how the ability to change the shape of the adhesive tip of the pili could be an advantage to a bacterium
Switching adhesive tips of pili allows bacteria to adhere to different types of cells and evade immune defenses
State the function of the following:
a. transposons
b. integrons
a. Small pieces of DNA that can transpose themselves from one DNA location to another.
b. Transposons that carry multiple genes (cassettes) from one DNA to another.
Name the various structures that may be in the cytoplasm of bacteria
They are cytoplasm, the nucleoid, plasmids and transposons, ribosomes, endospores, and organelles for photosynthesis.
name the enzymes that enable bacterial DNA to become circular, supercoiled, and unwind during DNA replication.
DNA topoisomerases, among them DNA gyrase, perform these functions.
State the chemical composition and structure of bacterial adhesion pili and bacterial conjugation (sex) pili
Adhesion pili and conjugation pili are thin protein tubes with a shaft composed of the protein pilin and adhesive tips to bind onto host cells