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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

structures of the urinary system (4)



-urinary bladder


structures of the female reproductive system (4)


-fallopian tubes


-vagina: microorganisms can enter reproductive tract through here

structures of the male reproductive system (5)



-system of ducts

-accessory glands

-penis: microorganism can enter reproductive tract through urethra and skin of penis

what two bacteria are normally colonized in the urethra?

Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus

what structures are sterile in the male reproductive system?

regions above the prostate

what affects the amount of microbes in the vagina?

hormone levels

who are usually asymptotic for UTIs and STDs? men or women?


symptoms of bacterial UTIs

-frequent urgent painful urination

-cloudy urine with foul odor

what are the causative agents of most UTIS?

enteric bacteria (Escherichia coli most cases)

virulence factors for UTIs

flagella and attachment fimbriae

agar that turns color depending on bacteria streaked


pathogenesis and epidemiology of UTIs

-self-inoculation of urethra with fecal bacteria

-more common in females

diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of UTIs

-diagnosis: urinalysis

-treatment: many cases resolve without treatment, but some need antimicrobial drugs

prevention: limiting contamination by fecal microbes

STD characteristics (3)

-require person-to-person contact

-agents of STDs cant live outside body

-Fomites cant transmit STDs

two most common STDs?

1) Chlamydia

2) Gonorrhea

causative agent for chancroid

Haemophilus ducreyi

-gram negative, pleomorphic

symptoms of chancroid

-soft chancres (ulcers), pain upon urination

-may spread to lymph nodes causing buboes

virulence factors for chancroid

produces a toxin that kills epithelial cells at the site of infection

epidemiology of chancroid

rare in Europe and Americas

most are infected during foreign travel (South East Asia)

treatment and prevention of chancroid

treatment: antimicrobial drugs

prevention: abstinence or mutual monogamy with an uninfected partner

characteristics of chlamydia

-#1 STD

-#1 cause of sterility in young women

-85% of women are asymptomatic

-only infects genitourinary tract and conjunctiva of eyes

-intracellular parasite of humans

causative agent of chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis

-gram negative cocci

-infection characterized by inflammation of urethra accompanied by discharge


nongonoccoccal urethritis (NGU)


incubation time for chlyamydia

1-3 weeks

treatment for chlamydia


-erythromycin for pregnant women

mechanism for bacterial STDs (6)

1) effective body (EB) attaches to host cell

2) EB enters host cell

3) EB converts into reticular body (RB) in vessicle

4) RB divides rapidly resulting in multiple RBs in an inclusion body

5) Most RBs convert back into EBs

6) EBs are released from host cell

pathogenesis of chlamydia

-enter body through abrasions or lacerations and infect cells of the conjunctiva or cells lining mucous membranes of urinary or reproductive tract

-in adolescence, infection is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer

diagnosis and prevention of chlamydia

-demonstration of chlamydial DNA following PCR amplification

-prevented by abstinence or mutual monogamy with an uninfected partner

symptoms of chlamydia in men

-painful urination, discharge

-Lymphogranuloma venereum

-buboes may enlarge to point of rupture

transient genital lesion at site of infection followed by the development of a bubo

lymphogranuloma venereum

symptoms of chlamydia in newborns

-disease of eyes called chlamydial opthalmia or trachoma

-leading cause of non-traumatic blindness

symptoms of chlamydia in women

-most are asymptomatic, which can lead to sterility

-vaginal discharge, burning with urination

-inflammation of cervix


-Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

blockage of the Fallopian tubes


inflammation of uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes

can cause chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility

Pelvic inflammatory disease

pregnancy outside of the uterus

ectopic pregnancy

characteristics of gonorrhea

-#2 STD reported

-fragile organism. susceptible to a lot of things

-likes chocolate agar

causative agent for gonorrhea

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

-gram negative diplococci

incubation time for gonorrhea

2-6 days

how do you control the spread of gonorrhea

use of prophylactics, rapid treatment, diagnosis of asymptomatic cases, and public education

prevention of gonorrhea

abstinence or mutual monogamy with an uninfected parter

symptoms of gonorrhea in women

-similar to chlamydia but worse

-discharge, burning pee


-pelvic inflammatory disease

-50% are asymptomatic

pathogenesis of gonorrhea

-Neisseria gonorrhoeae use fimbriae to attach to mucosal cells and sperm

symptoms of gonorrhea in newborns and treatment

gonoccoccal opthalmia (prevented with use of silver nitrate and antibiotics)

symptoms of gonorrhea in men

-painful urination, discharge

-testicular pain

-swelling of lymph nodes in groin

-infection of epididymis (can lead to sterility)

-orchitis (swelling of testis)

transmission of gonorrhea through oral sex

gonococcal pharyngitis

transmission of gonorrhea through anal sex

gonococcal proctitis

characteristics of syphilis

-only fatal STD

-"the great imitator"

incubation time of syphilis

about three weeks

causative agent of syphilis

Treponema pallidum

-gram negative spirochete

transmission of syphilis

intimate human to human contact

pathogenesis of syphilis

enters body through mucous membranes, abrasions or hair follicles

treatment of symphilis

can be treated with antibiotics in primary, secondary, and latent stages, but not in the tertiary stages

primary stage of syphilis (4)

-symptoms: chancre (painless ulcer with raised margins and hard edges

-develops at site of entry

-contains spirochetes

-disappears spontaneously after about 3-8 weeks

secondary stage of syphilis (5)

-looks like other diseases

-symptoms: fever, flu-like illness, swollen lymph nodes (mono)

-skin rash (like measles or chicken pox)

-patchy hair loss, jaundice (like hepatitis)

-still infectious in latent stage

tertiary stage of syphilis (4)

-characterized by gumma (soft, gummy, granular lesions that will burst blood vessels)

-leads to degeneration of NT, skin, bone

-insanity, then blindness, then death

-possible paralysis

what is congenital syphilis

-occurs when Treponema pallidum spirochetes penetrate placenta after 4th month

symptoms of congenital syphilis

-skin lesions, bad bone formation, meningitis

-Hutchinson's triad

Hutchinson's triad


-impaired vision

-notched, peg shaped teeth