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State the formula for Gibbs free energy

Change in free energy= Change in enthalpy - Change in entropy

What is enthalpy?

Amount of heat used or lost in a system at constant pressure

What is entropy?

Measure of disorder


What is redox potential?

Measure of how strongly a chemical wants electrons

Metabolism is the sum of...

Catabolism & anabolism

What is catabolism?

The breakdown of molecules into smaller units to release energy

What is anabolism?

The construction of molecules from smaller units using energy

What are carbon sources?

C-source

Heterotrophs need for energy..

ready made organic molecules for cell compounds

Inorganic Co2 are...

c-source

Autotrophs make their own organic molecules by

reducing Co2

What is heterotrophy?

Reduced organic compounds as carbon source

What is autotrophy

CO2 as a carbon source

When the energy source is chemicals

Chemotrophy

When light is the energy source

Phototrophy

The most common pathway used by autotrophic bacteria

Fix (reduce) carbon e.g. cyanobacteria

When the organic is the chemical energy source

organotrophy

When inorganic is the chemical energy source

lithotrophy

What is the e- donor for chemoorganotrophic bacterium?

Glucose

What is the e- acceptor for chemoorganotrophic bacterium?

oxygen

How does respiration gain energy?

Harvesting energy from tranfer electron

What are some benefits of chemoorganotrophy?

Cleaning up fuel spills


Regulating global temperature


Treating muncipal and industrial wastewater


Biomining, bioremediation and biogas production

How do phototrophs harvest energy?

Use light-trapping molecules to harvest energy directly from light photons.


Energy used to reduce Co2 or generate ATP

In oxygenic photosynthesis, what is teh electron donor?

water resulting in the release of oxygen

What is the significance of bacterial pigments?

Can harvest high light intensities

In anoxygenic photosynthesis, what is the electron source?

H2S or sulfur resulting in more oxidised sulfur components

Does anoxygenic photosynthesis generate oxygen?

no



Can anoxygenic photosynthesis function in low light levels?

They are adapted to low light levels

What are the two photosystems in oxygenic photosynthesis based on?

Chlorophyll

What is the one photosystem in anoxygenic photosynthesis?

bacteriochlorophyll