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69 Cards in this Set

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Products of glycolysis

- 2 pyruvic acid

- 2 ATP

- 2 NADH

Products of Krebs cycle

- CO2

- 2 ATP

- 6 NADH

- 2 FADH2

Glycolysis converts ________ into _________

glucose; pyruvate

Most common form of glycolysis


Two stages of glycolysis

- preparatory stage

- energy-conserving stage

The pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative to


In oxygenic photosynthesis the source of electrons is


In anoxygenic photosynthesis the source of electrons is

something other than water, such as H2S

Photoautotrophs use ________ as an energy source and _______ as a carbon source

light; carbon dioxide

Photoheterotrophs use ________ as an energy source and _______ as a carbon source

light; organic molecules

Chemoautotrophs use ________ as an energy source and _______ as a carbon source

inorganic compounds; carbon dioxide

Chemoheterotrophsuse ________ as an energy source and _______ as a carbon source

organic compounds; organic compounds

Type of chemoheterotrophs that use dead organic matter for energy


Organisms that need cold conditions and cannot even grow at normal temperatures


Organisms that like fairly cold conditions


Organisms that grow well at 25-40*C, most common type of microbe


Most bacteria prefer to live in hypotonic or hypertonic conditions


An enzyme that neutralizes superoxide free radicals, converts them to H202 (hydrogen peroxide)

Superoxide dismutase (SOD)

O2 (2-)

Peroxide anion

O2 (1-)

Superoxide anion

Enzymes that neutralizes hydrogen peroxide

catalase, peroxidase

OH (-)

hydroxyl radical

Organisms that require low-oxygen, high carbon dioxide environments. Often found in intestinal tract.


Type of media that prevents growth of unwanted organisms and encourages growth of desired organisms

selective media

Type of media used to distinguish colonies of the desired organisms from other colonies on the same plate

Differential media

contains a pH indicator, mannitol as the only carbohydrate, and sodium chloride. Selects for species that can tolerate the high salt content and can ferment mannitol.

Mannitol salt agar

Type of media that contains bile salts, crystal violet, lactose, and a pH indicator. Shows production of acid from lactose.

MacConkey agar

Term for freeze-drying



microbes are quickly frozen, water is removed by a vacuum, produces a powderlike residue that can be restored with water

Average generation time for most bacteria

1-3 hours

Phases of bacterial growth

- Lag phase - little growth

- Log phase - exponential growth

- Stationary phase - growth/death balanced

- Death phase - death exceeds growth

Most Probable Number (MPN) method

Taking a sample, diluting it by exponential rates, and assessing the positive/negative presence of each dilution

Method used to count bacteria in milk

Direct microscopic count

removal or destruction of all forms of microbial life


Commercial sterilization subjects food to enough heat to destroy the endospores of


Removal of harmful microbes on a non-living surface


Removal of harmful microbes on a living surface


Removal of harmful microbes by mechanical removal


The lowest temperature at which all microbes will be killed in 10 minutes

Thermal death point (TDP)

The minimum length of time that all microbes will be killed in a given solution at a given temperature

Thermal death time (TDT)

Time, in minutes, in which 90% of microbes will be killed at a given temperature

Decimal reduction time (DRT)

Average time and temp of autoclave

15 min at 15 psi (121* C)

Classic pasteurization

63*C for 30 min

High-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST)

72*C for 15 seconds

Ultra high temperature treatment (UHT)

140*C for 3 seconds

Time and temp necessary for dry heat sterilization in an oven

170*C for 2 hours

Bacteria able to get through .22-.45um filters

spirochetes and mycoplasmas

Pathogen that can grow at the low temperatures of refrigeration

Listeria monocytogenes

Pathogen that can survive in phagocytic cells and proliferate inside them, features "comet tails" or "actin rockets" when breaking out

Listeria monocytogenes

The process of extreme drying




Type of bacteria that is very resistant to ionizing radiation (IR)


Most common active substance in most phenolics


usedas a demulsifyer, biocide and in fragrances; an active ingredient of Birex aone-step germicidal detergent. used to disinfect countertops

Para-tertiary amylphenol

Contains two phenol groups connected by a bridge


Compound in pHisoHex, very good against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci.


o-benzyl-p-chlorophenolin Amphyl


Triclosan is a


Antibacterial common in soaps and toothpastes, inhibits enzyme necessary to make fatty acids


Effectiveness of alcohols against microbes

Kills bacteria and fungi but not endospores and nonenveloped viruses

Heavy metals that are effective antimicrobials

silver, mercury, copper

Surface active agents. Decrease surface tension. Soaps and detergents.


Cationic detergents

Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats)

Two bacteria that can actively grow in quats

Pseudomonas and Burkholderia

Added to many meat products that inhibits botulism

sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate

Action of aldehydes against microbes

inactivate proteins by forming covalent cross-links with several organic functional groups

Gaseous sterilizer that denatures proteins, is toxic and explosive, used on spacecraft and mattresses

ethylene oxide

Supercritical carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide in a fluid state while also being at or above its critical temperature and pressure, giving it uncommon properties

Used to decontaminate bone, tendons, or ligaments taken from donor patients

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2)