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90 Cards in this Set

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What are the four different types of antibodies?
IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD
What is the main class of immunoglobulin?
IgG
Which immunoglobulin can form a dimer?
IgA
Which immunoglobulin produces a pentamer?
IgM
Which immunoglobulin causes alergic reactions?
IgE
Where are IgD immunoglobulins found?
On B-Cell Membranes.
What is the name of the process where antigen binds to IgM or IgG, changing the antibodys shape?
Compliment Fixation
What is the primary defense against foreign cells like bacteria?
Compliment Fixation
How long does it take the Primary Response to peak?
7-10 Days
Which immunoglobulin is the primary response primarily associated with?
IgM
What is a secondary response?
It is the second encounter of B-Cells to the same antigen.
Where are the antigens located that Helper T Cells can locate?
MHC II
Where can Cytotoxic T Cells recognize antigens?
MHC I
What do T-helper cells secrete to attract other immune cells?
Cytokines
What is the purpose for suppressor T cells?
To slow down the immune response.
Where do Memory T Cells come from?
Cytotoxic T Cells
Which type of T Cells can cause an allergic reaction?
Delayed-Hypersensitivity T Cells
What are the three types of Cytokines?
IL - 1
IL - 2
Gamma Interferon
What type of cell secretes IL -1 ?
Macrophages
What does IL - 1 activate?
Helper T Cells
What type of cell secretes IL - 2?
Helper T Cells
Which cytokine helps to activate macrophages?
Gamma Interferon
Which cell secretes Gamma Interferon?
Helper T Cells
What activates null cells?
IL-1 + IL-2 + Gamma Interferon
What type of a response does a virus normally ellicit?
A Cell-Mediated Response
What protein does Cytotoxic T Cells produce?
Perforin
What do lymphotoxins target?
DNA
What can kill cancer cells in 2-3 Days?
Tumor Necrosis Factor
What lymphokine keeps macrophages in the area?
Migration Inhibiting Factor
What are two artificial methods of immunization?
Active and Passive Immunization
A Vaccine is a type of what immunization?
Active Immunization
A transfer of antibodies formed by another individual or animal is what type of immunization?
Passive
What are the three general types of vaccines?
Attenuated
Killed
Toxoid
What are the three general types of vaccines?
Attenuated
Killed
Toxoid
Using a live strain of reduced virulence for a vaccine is termed?
Attenuation
How can viruses be attenuated?
By raising them in tissue culture cells for which they arent adapted.
Which type of vaccine requires a booster vaccine?
Inactivated
What are toxoid vaccines?
Chemically or thermally modified toxins to stimulate immunity.
What is serum called that is used for passive immunizations?
Anti-Serum
What is an over reaction?
Hypersensitivity
What is an inadequate response?
Immunodeficiency
What is an allergy?
WHen the immune system reacts to an antigen that it normally ignores.
What is an exxagerated response?
Hypersensitivity
What is an ordinarily innocuous substance?
allergen
What is an initial recognition of an antigen that causes IgE to be produced?
Sensitization
What is it called when an allergen produces a localized release of IgE?
Localized Anaphylaxis
What is asthma?
Hypersensitivity to inhaled or ingested allergens.
Why is Systemic Anaphylaxis life threatening?
IgE releases a massive amount of histamine, which can drop blood pressure, and airways can become constricted and filled with mucous.
What is the release of mediators like histamine called?
Degranulation
Thrombocytopenic Purpura, ABO Blood Types, and Rh Factor are all examples of what type of hypersensitivity?
Type II
What are localized reactions of complexes of antigens, and antibodies?
Arthus Reactions
What is the main cause of type IV hypersensitivity?
Delayed Hypersensitivity T Cells
Contact dermatitis is an example of what type of hypersensitivity?
Type IV (Cell Mediated)
If self deletion fails, what can develop?
Auto Immune Disorders
What is Type I Autoimmunity?
Antigenic Mimicry
What is an example of Type I autoimmune disorder?
Blood-Testis Barrier Breach
What is a Type II Autoimmune Disorder?
Cytotoxic AutoImmunity
What is an example of cytotoxic autoimmunity?
Graves Disease, Causes enlargement (goiter)
What is the autoimmune disease that had antibodies coat actylcholine receptors?
Myasthenia Gravis
What is the autoimmune disease that had antibodies coat actylcholine receptors?
Myasthenia Gravis
Which type of auto immune disease is the immune complex?
Type III
What class do Systemic Lupus, and Rheumatoid Arthrytis belong?
Type III - Immune Complex
What disease causes T-Cells and Macrophages to attack mylein sheaths of nerve cells and to what class does it belong?
MS - Type IV (Cell-Mediated)
What is HLA?
Human Leukoctye Antigen
What must match closely to avoid a transplant rejection?
HLA
What are two type of sites that dont stimulate immunity?
Priviledged Site, and Priviledged Tissue
What is a graft from self tissue to another part of the body?
Autograft
What is a graft between identical twins?
IsoGraft
What is the disease called that is a B-Cell Dificiency?
Agammaglobulemia
What is the disease called in a patient that does not have a thymus gland, and a T-Cell deficiency?
DiGeorge Syndrome
What is a deficiency or lack of T and B cells?
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
What can cause secondary immune deficiencies?
Infectious Agents (HIV)
Malignancies (Hodgkins Lymphoma)
Immunosuppressants (Chemotherapy)
Radiation
Certain Antibiotics
Antibodies are what type of immune response?
Specific
Antibodies are what type of immune response?
Specific
Skin, mucous membranes, antimocrobial chemicals are examples of?
The First Line of Nonspecific Defense.
Cells, Antimicrobial Bloodborne Chemicals, and processes are examples of?
The Second line of nonspecific defenses.
What is the oil secreted from sebaceous glands in skin?
Sebum
What is the defense system of mucuous called?
MALT
What inhibits bacterial growth by limiting the amount of available iron?
Transferrins
What inhibits bacterial growth by limiting the amount of available iron?
Transferrins
What are the three cell types in blood?
Erythrocytes (RBC),
Leukocytes (WBC),
Platelets
Basophils, Eosinophils, and Neutrophils are all types of ....?
Granulocytes
Monocytes and Lymphocytes are types of...
Agranulocytes
Macrophages come from?>
Monocytes
What types of cells releases histamines and can become mast cells?
Basophils
What are important in parasitic infections, and can turn off inflammatory reactions be releasing antihistamine?
Eosinophils
What are important in parasitic infections, and can turn off inflammatory reactions be releasing antihistamine?
Eosinophils
What are important in parasitic infections, and can turn off inflammatory reactions be releasing antihistamine?
Eosinophils
What cell is usually found to be the first nonspecific defense?
Neutrophils
What are the five steps of phagocytosis?
Chemotaxis
Adherence
Ingestion
Digestion
Elimination