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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Hospitals are what type of care?

Acute Care. The are also the center of the American Healthcare System.

Hospitals are the ____ largest business in the United States.


What four types of services do Hospitals


Diagnostics, Medical, Surgical, and Emergency services.

What types of hospitals are there..

~ Public, private, and military.

~ Private (proprietary) and non-profit.

~ General and specialty.

How many beds must a hospital have?

How many beds does the average hospital have?

~ must have at least 6 beds.

~ on average, 200 beds.

What is the primary function of a hospital?

To provide care.

What do hospitals require, staff wise..

A licensed physician staff and 24/7 nursing


Who do ambulatory care service?

outpatient facilities.

Ambulatory care consists of groups of physicians who provide a range of different services. Name 3 services..

1. Surgery centers

2. Walk-in clinics

3. Imaging centers

Is Ambulatory Care experiencing growth or are they declining?

Ambulatory services are

experiencing growth.. they are competing with hospitals for


What is Long-Term Care? and is there an age limit? If so, what is it?

caring for physically ill or injured patients who require "extended care".

They treat patients of all ages.

What are some types of care that are associated with nursing homes?

~Intermediate Care

~Skilled Care

~Many more types

What are requirements for the staff in

Rehabilitation centers?

~They are specialized in specific therapeutic treatments.

What is Medicare?

A federal program for those 65 and over

Medicare uses the payment system of

______________ (DRG).

Diagnostic Relaxed Groups

What is one thing Medicare does not cover?

Prescription drugs

What do elderly do even when they have medicare?

The purchase additional supplemental insurance

What is medicaid? Is it different in different places?

~It is a federal and state cooperative plan.

~The benefits vary from state to state.

Who do they mainly provide care for?

The poor and the disabled.

What is the problem with Medicaid?

They do not always cover doctor visits and


How do Volunteer Agencies get funds to do what they do?

Receive financial support from donations, gifts, and fundraisers.

Volunteer agencies raise funds for research and public education about various health

problems.. name some!

1. American Cancer Society

2. March of Dimes

3. American Red Cross

4. American Heart Association

Ancient Times:

Primitive Humans.. AKA the early humans. What are three things they did?

1. Believed in superstitions

2. Preformed religious ceremonies

3. Utilized herbs and plants

Ancient Hebrew:

What did they believe disease was? Who were they influenced by?

They believed disease was a divine punishment.

By the greeks in the 4th century.

Ancient Egypt:

What three things were they

really 1st to do?

Who was the Goddess of healing?

1. They kept accurate health records

2. Developed embalming practices (mummification)

3. Practiced good hygiene

Isis was the goddess of healing.

Ancient China:

Believed in Harmony (yin-yang).. they focused on prevention. What were some things that went along with this?

~ Cure the spirit.

~ Nourish the body.

~ Give medications.

~ Treat the whole body.

~ Acupuncture.

Ancient Greeks:

To them, what were the basic components of life?

~ Earth

~ Air

~ Fire

~ Water

Ancient Greeks:

Who was considered the father of medicine? Why? What is his oath?

~Hippocrates was considered the father of


~He observed and measured causes of disease.

~The Hippocratic Oath is something doctors have to recite in order to become a working

doctor! 1st Do no harm..

When was the Dark Ages?

It was a 900 year period between the fall of the Romans (Roman Empire) and the Renaissance.

Dark Ages:

What bad things happened during this time?

What did churches believe in during this time?

~Study of medicine and science stopped.

~Epidemics caused millions of deaths:

*Bubonic Plague: began because of

disease-ridden fleas that lived on rats.

*Small Pox

Churches believed that life and death were in the hands of God.. exorcism and prayer.

The Renaissance:

Time frame? What happened during this time?

~A.D. 1350-1650

Rebirth of learning..

1. Building of medical schools

2. Acceptance of dissection

3. Van Leeuwenhoek: the microscope was


Scientific Discoveries:

Da Vinci?

Studied and recorded anatomy (art)

Scientific Discoveries:


Invented the stethoscope

Scientific Discoveries:


Discovered that microorganisms cause disease

Scientific Discoveries:


Developed antiseptics for use in surgery

Scientific Discoveries:



Scientific Discoveries:


Hand-washing (cleanliness)

Famous Milestones:



Famous Milestones:



Famous Milestones:



Famous Milestones:

Salk and Sabin?

Polio Vaccine

Famous Milestones:


Modern nursing theory

Until the early 1900s, ______ and _______ were the the major causes of death.

disease epidemics and acute illnesses

What were some conditions that caused

epidemics and illnesses during the early 1900s?

- Contaminated food and water.

- Inadequate housing.

- Poor Sewage disposal (mostly in cities).

In the early 1900s, what was wrong with


Hospitals were crowded, dirty, disease-ridden, and a threat the life.

Eventually environmental conditions improved (along with knowledge of disease), and epidemics were fewer.

After the earlier 1900s, training of physicians

improved or got worse?

Chronic diseases now account for ____ of all deaths.



What year were antibiotics developed? What happened to the count of deaths from acute


They were developed in 1940. The count


What are acute illnesses? Give an example.

*Usually not lethal.

*Comes fast and does not last a long period of time.

*Symptoms show almost immediately.

An example could be the Flu.

What are chronic illnesses? Give an example.

*More of a dangerous illness; ones we worry about today.

*Comes on slowly and lasts a very long time.

*Continuously gets worse over time.

*Symptoms usually only show when the disease is far along and already has developed.

*Usually this type of illness is brought on by life style choices.

An example could be heart disease or diabetes.

What is the definition of Health?

A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.

What is the definition of Disease?

A pattern of response of a living organism to some injury. Something damaging to your health.

What is Mortality?

Death rate (causes of death) .. varies b/c of age:

1-44: Accidents

45-64: Cancer

65 and over: Heart Disease

What is Morbidity?

Occurrence of death

What does the Center For Disease Control say are the 5 leading causes of death

~ Heart Disease

~ Cancer

~ Stroke


~ Accidents

See pages 43-44

What does COPD stand for?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

What are some social forces


~Aging of America.

~Increasing heath care costs.

~Fluctuations in birth rate.

What are some ethical issues present today?

- Advances in research and technology.

- Right to privacy and confidentiality.

- Use of lab animals.

- Right to life.

.. Abortion

.. Right to die (i.e. life support)

.. Euthanasia (assisted suicide for terminal


- Human cloning.

- Long term aging population (caring for them)

More ethical issues..

10 million older adults need care

- in 2025 half of all "older americans" will be over 75.

- 2/3rds of nursing home patients have cognitive disorders.

- Cost of long term care paid by residents and families, deleting life


- Increasing in need for home care.