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166 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
2 reasons why emotions have been excluded from OB study
1. myth of rationality
2. belief that emotions of any kind are disruptive in the workplace
emotions were the antithesis of rationality and should not be seen in the workplace
myth of rationality
- a generic term that encompasses traits, emotions and moods
- defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience. Can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods.
affect
- feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and often lack a contextual stimulus
- cause is often general and unclear
- last longer than emotions (hours or days)
- more general
- generally not indicated by distinct expressions
- cognitive in nature
moods
2 main dimensions of moods that are comprised of multiple specific emotions
1. postive affect
2. negative affect
- intense feelings that are directed at someone or something
- caused by specific event
- very brief in duration (seconds or minutes)
- specific and numerous in nature (many such as anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise)
- usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions
- action oriented in nature
emotions
4 aspects of emotions
1. biology of emotions
2. intensity
3. frequency and duration
4. emotions and rationality
Emotions originate in the brain's ___, which is different for each person.
limbic system
Different people give different responses to identical ___.
emotion-provoking stimuli
Some emotions occur ___ and emotions differ in ___.
more frequently; how long they last
Our emotions provide important information about how we ___.
understand the world around us
9 sources of emotions and moods
1. personality
2. day of week and time of day
3. weather
4. stress
5. social activities
6. sleep
7. exercise
8. age
9. gender
Predisposes people to experience certain moods and emotions. Affect intensity impacts the strength of the emotion.
personality
More positive interactions will likely occur from ___ onwards and also ___.
mid-morning; later in the week
not an impact on emotions and moods, according to research
weather
increased ___ worsens moods
stress
usually increase positive mood and have little effect on negative mood
social activities
Less sleep or poor quality sleep increases ___.
negative emotions
enhances positive mood
exercise
Older people experience negative emotions ___ frequently.
less
___ show greater emotional expression, experience emotions more intensely, and display more frequent expressions of emotions.
Women
2 external constraints on emotions
1. organizational influences
2. cultural influences
Most American organizations strive to be ___.
emotion-free
3 things cultures vary in, in terms of being an external constraint on emotions
1. degree to which people exprience emotions
2. interpretation of emotions
3. norms for the expression of emotions
- an employee's expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work
- recognizes that certain feelings can be part of a job's requirements
emotional labor
when an employee has to project one emotion while feeling another one
emotional dissonance
the individual's actual emotions
felt emotions
emotions that the organization requires workers to show
displayed emotions
hiding our true emotions
surface acting
trying to change one's feelings based on display rules
deep acting
one's ability to detect and manage emotional cues and information
emotional intelligence (EI)
4 dimensions of EI
1. perception of emotions in self and others
2. use of emotion to facilitate thought
3. understanding complexity of emotions
4. managing emotions in self and others
3 arguments for EI
1. intuitive appeal - it makes sense
2. evidence suggests that a high level of EI predicts high job performance
3. study suggests that EI is neurologically based
3 arguments against EI
1. EI is too vague a concept (multiple models)
2. EI can't be adequately measured
3. EI is so closely related to intelligence and personality that it is not unique when those factors are controlled
10 OB applications of emotions and moods
1. selection
2. decision making
3. creativity
4. motivation
5. leadership
6. interpersonal conflict
7. negotiation
8. customer service
9. job attitudes
10. deviant workplace behaviors
Employers should consider EI a factor in hiring for jobs that demand a high degree of ___.
social interaction
___ can increase problem-solving skills and help us understand and analyze new information.
Positive emotions
Positive moods increase ___.
creativity
Organizations that promote positive moods are likely to have a more ___ workforce.
motivated
Emotions help convey ___ more effectively.
messages
It is critical to identify and work through the ___ in any conflict.
emotional elements
Emotions may impair ___.
negotiator performance
Customers (and other employees) "catch" emotions from employees, called ___.
emotional contagion
Emotions at work get carried ___ but rarely carry over to the ___.
home; next day
Those who feel negative emotions are more likely to engage in ___ at work.
deviant behavior
Managers should understand the role of emotions and moods to explain and predict ___.
behavior
Emotions and moods can increase ___.
motivation
___ can interfere with performance of complex jobs.
Intense emotions
two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives
groups
groups that are defined by the organization's structure
formal groups
groups that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined
informal groups
6 reasons why people join groups
1. security
2. status
3. self-esteem
4. affiliation
5. power
6. goal achievement
By joining a group, individuals can reduce the ___ of having to stand on their own. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group.
insecurity
Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and ___ for its members.
status
Groups can provide people with feelings of ___. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also increase these types of feelings to the group members themselves.
self-worth
Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people, these on-the-job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for ___.
affiliation
What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is ___ in numbers.
power
Sometimes it takes more than one person to ___, so people pool talents, knowledge, or power. In such instances, management will rely on the use of a formal group.
accomplish a particular task
5 types of group properties
1. roles
2. norms
3. status
4. size
5. cohesiveness
to engage in a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a social unit
roles
attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role
role identity
our view of how we're supposed to act in a given situation
role perception
how others believe you should act in a given situation
role expectations
when an individual finds that compliance with one role requirement may make it more difficult to comply with another
role conflict
- acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members
- tell members of a group what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances
norms
- voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members
- is likely to flourish where it is supported by group norms
deviant workplace behavior
a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others
status
3 determinants of status
1. the power a person wields over others
2. a person's ability to contribute to a group's goals
3. an individual's personal characteristics
4 impacts of status
1. high-status members of groups often are given more freedom to deviate from norms
2. interaction among members of groups is influenced by status
3. when inequity is perceived, it results in various types of corrective behavior
4. cultural differences affect status
4 ways that size affects a group
1. smaller groups are faster at completing tasks
2. individuals perform better in smaller groups
3. large groups are consistently better at problem solving
4. social loafing
tendency to expend less effort in a group than as an individual
social loafing
- the degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group
- related to the group's productivity
cohesiveness
result of both high cohesiveness and performance norms
high productivity
result of low cohesiveness and high performance norms
moderate productivity
result of high cohesiveness and low performance norms
low productivity
result of both low cohesiveness and performance norms
moderate to low productivity
3 strengths of group decision making
1. generate more complete information and knowledge
2. increased diversity of views
3. increased acceptance of a solution
3 weaknesses of group decision making
1. conformity pressures
2. discussions can be dominated by one or a few members
3. ambiguous responsibility for the final outcome
4 aspects of effectiveness, as it pertains to groups
1. accuracy
2. speed
3. creativity
4. degree of acceptance
When it comes to accuracy, a group is (better, worse), than the average individual, and (better, worse) than the most accurate group member.
better; worse
When it comes to speed, individuals are (faster, slower) than groups.
faster
When it comes to creativity, groups are (better, worse) than individuals.
better
When it comes to the degree of acceptance, groups are (better, worse) than individuals.
better
Groups are generally (more, less) efficient than individuals
less
4 symptoms of groupthink
1. group members rationalize any resistance to their assumptions
2. members pressure any doubters to support the alternative favored by the majority
3. doubters keep silent about misgivings and minimize their importance
4. group interprets members' silence as a "yes" vote for the majority
3 occasions when groupthink occurs most often
1. a clear group identity exists
2. members hold a positive image of their group that they want to protect
3. the group perceives a collective threat to this postiive image
3 ways to minimize groupthink
1. limit group size to 10 or less
2. encourage group leaders to actively seek input from all members and avoid expressing their own opinions, especially in the early stages of deliberation
3. appoint a "devil's advocate"
4 reasons why teams have become so popular
1. outperform individuals on tasks requiring multiple skills, judgment, and experience
2. better utilization of employee talents
3. more flexible and responsive to changing events
4. effective way for management to democratize the organization and increase employee motivation
a group who interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help one another perform within each member's area of responsibility
work group
generates positive synergy through coordinated effort; individual efforts result in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs
work team
4 types of teams
1. problem-solving
2. self-managed
3. cross-functional
4. virtual
4 key components of effective teams
1. context
2. composition
3. work design
4. process
key component of effective teams:
- presence of adequate resources
- effective leadership
- climate of trust
- performance evaluation and reward system that reflects team contributions
context
key component of effective teams:
- abilities of members
- personality
- allocating roles
- diversity
- size of teams
- member flexibility
- member preferences
composition
key component of effective teams:
- freedom & autonomy
- skill variety
- task identity
- task significance
work design
key component of effective teams:
- member commitment to a common purpose
- establishment of specific team goals
- team efficacy
- managed level of conflict
- minimizing social learning
process
3 aspects of shaping team players
1. selection
2. training
3. rewards
In addition to technical skills, managers must select employees who have the ___ to be team players.
interpersonal skills
Workshops on problem-solving, comunications, negotiation, conflict-management and coaching skills can help build ___.
team members
Rework ___ to encourage cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones.
rewards
4 common characteristics of effective teams:
1. individuals with technical and interpersonal skills
2. have 10 or fewer members with diverse backgrounds
3. members fill roles but are flexible and prefer to be part of a group
4. members are committed to a common purpose
Managers should set the group's size based on the ___.
task at hand
___ can influence productivity.
Cohesiveness
goal in work groups: ___
vs.
goal in work teams: ___
share information; collective performance
synergy in work groups: ___
vs.
synergy in work teams: ___
neutral (sometimes negative); positive
accountability in work groups: ___
vs.
accountability in work teams: ___
individual; individual and mutual
skills in work groups: ___
vs.
skills in work teams: ___
random and varied; complementary
the capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively
channel richness
___ is the richest channel.
Face-to-face communication
5 moderately rich channels
1. telephone
2. electronic chat rooms
3. e-mail
4. written memos
5. letters
___ and ___ are the leanest channels.
Posted notices; bulletins
2 advantages of oral communication
1. speed
2. feedback
2 disadvantages of oral communication
1. potential for distorted message when passed through a number of people
2. content at destination may be different from the original
4 advantages of written communication
1. provide a tangible and verifiable record
2. record can be stored for an indefinite period of time
3. physically available for later reference
4. more likely to be well thought-out, logical, and clear
3 disadvantages of written communication
1. time consuming
2. lack of feedback
3. no guarantee how reader will interpret it
- occurs through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures
- gives clues to what a person is really thinking
nonverbal communication
2 important aspects of nonverbal communication
1. kinesics
2. proxemics
the study of gestures and body postures
kinesics
the study of how space is utilized
proxemics
moderate speed, emergence of a leader, and member satisfaction; high accuracy
chain network
fast speed; high accuracy and emergence of a leader; low member satisfaction
wheel network
fast speed; moderate accuracy; no emergence of a leader; high member satisfaction
all-channel network
- not controlled by management
- perceived as being more believable and reliable
- largely used to serve self-interest
the grapevine
___ emerge as a response to situations that are important to us, where there is ambiguity and under conditions that arouse anxiety.
Rumors
4 types of computer-aided communication
1. e-mail
2. instant messaging
3. intranet and extranet links
4. video-conferencing
- can be quickly written, edited and stored
- can be easily distributed to many
- can be read at the convenience of the recipient
- cost is lower than printed form
- can be impersonal
- lacks emotional cues
e-mail
- is essentially real-time e-mail
- fast and inexpensive means for employees to stay in touch with one another
- preferred for one or two line messages
- not as good as e-mail for long messages that need to be saved
- some find it intrusive and distracting
instant messaging
give access only to employees and are used to communicate internal messages
intranets
link employees with selected suppliers, customers and strategic partners to faciliate communication
extranets
- permits employees to conduct interactive meetings without being physically in the same room
- becoming more accessible to desktops with new technology
videoconferencing
6 barriers to effective communication
1. filtering
2. selective perception
3. information overload
4. emotions
5. language
6. communication apprehension
4 cultural barriers to effective communication
1. semantics
2. word connotations
3. tone differences
4. differences among perceptions
___ are cultural barriers to effective communication because words mean different things to different people.
Semantics
___ are cultural barriers to effective communication because words imply different things in different languages.
Word connotations
Tone differences are cultural barriers to effective communication because in some cultures tone changes depending on___.
context
___ are cultural barriers to effective communication because there are different world views.
Differences among perceptions
2 ways managers can ensure greater certainty, which leads to greater satisfaction
1. use multiple channels
2. be consistent with verbal and non-verbal
Effective communication improves ___ and ___.
productivity; motivation
Managers should convey honest and accurate information during the hiring process to reduce ___.
turnover
- the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals
- about coping with change
- establish direction, align resources and inspire
leadership
- about coping with complexity
- brings about order and consistency
management
- differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics
- extraversion related strongest to leadership
- conscientiousness and openness to experience also strongly related to leadership
- traits can predict leadership
- traits are better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness
trait theories
- assumed people can be trained to lead
- researched the behaviors of specific leaders
- provides the basis of design for training programs
behavioral theories
2 orientations of the University of Michigan studies
1. employee-oriented
2. production-oriented
- emphasize interpersonal relations
- this type of behavior leads to higher productivity and satisfaction
employee-oriented
emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job
production-oriented
2 types of contingency theories
1. leader-member exchange theory
2. path-goal theory
- leaders do differentiate among followers
- disparities are far from random
- followers with in-group status have:
- higher performance ratings
- lower turnover intentions
- greater satisfaction with their superiors
- higher overall satisfaction than those in the out-group
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
leader's job is to provide followers with the information, support or other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals
Path-Goal Theory
4 leadership behaviors, according to the Path-Goal Theory
1. directive leader
2. supportive leader
3. participative leader
4. achievement-oriented leader
3 environmental contingency factors, according to the Path-goal Theory
1. task structure
2. formal authority system
3. work group
2 outcomes, according to the Path-Goal Theory
1. performance
2. satisfaction
3 subordinate contingency factors, according to the Path-Goal Theory
1. locus of control
2. experience
3. perceived ability
- motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements
- contingent reward: contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments
- management by exception (active): watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes correct action
- management by exception (passive): intervenes only if standards are not met
- laissez-faire: abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions
transactional leaders
- inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization
- idealized influence: provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust
- inspirational motivation: communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways
- intellectual stimulation: promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving
- individualized consideration: gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises
transformational leaders
3 steps of how transformational leadership works
1. followers are encouraged to be more innovative and creative
2. followers pursue more ambitious goals and have more personal commitment to them
3. vision engenders commitment from followers and greater sense of trust
- involves leaders who know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly
- if we're looking for the best possible leader, it is not enough to be charismatic or visionary - one must also be ethical and create trust on the part of followers
authentic leadership
2 challenges to the leadership construct
1. attritubtion theory of leadership says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals
2. leaders don't always have an impact on follower outcomes due to organizational variables that can neutralize the leader's influence or act as substitutes for leadership
2 aspects of finding and creating effective leaders
1. selection
2. training
aspect of finding and creating effective leaders that involves:
- personality test to look for traits associated with leadership
- match leaders to situations
selection
aspect of finding and creating effective leaders that involves:
- working with those willing to change their behavior
- can teach implementation skills and transformational skills
training
Leaders influence ___.
group performance
___ depends somewhat on having "the right stuff."
Leadership success
Leadership depends on the ___.
situation
___ skills are becoming more important for managers.
Transformational
Managers should select and train based on ___ & ___.
traits; qualities