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80 Cards in this Set

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Organizational Design
The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its goals
Organizational Structure
The linking of departments within an organization
Differentiation
The process of deciding how to divide the work in an organization
Integration
The process of coordinating the different parts of an organization
Horizontal Differentiation
Degree of differentiation between organizational subunits
Vertical Differentiation
The difference in authority and responsibility in the organizational hierarchy
Spatial Differentiation
Geographic dispersion of an organization's offices, plants, and personnel
Vertical Integration
- Hierarchical Referral
- Rules and procedures
- Plans and schedules
- Positions added to the organization structure
- Management information systems
Horizontal Integration
- Liaison roles
- Task forces
- Integrator positions
- Teams
Structural Dimensions
- Formalization
- Centralization
- Specialization
- Standardization
- Complexity
- Hierarchy of Authority
Formalization
The degree to which the organization has official rules, regulations, and procedures
Centralization
The degree to which dimensions are made at the top of the organization
Specialization
The degree to which jobs are narrowly defined and depend on unique expertise
Standardization
The degree to which work activities are accomplished in a routine fashion
Complexity
The degree to which many different types of activities occur in the organization
Hierarchy of Authority
The degree of vertical differentiation across levels of management
Five Basic Parts of an Organzation
Strategic Apex,// Techno-Structure, Middle-Line, Support Staff,// Operating Core
Contextual Variables
A Set of characteristics that influences the organization's design processes
Contextual Variables that Influence Organizational Structure
- Size
- Technology
- Strategy and Goals
- Environment
Forces Reshaping Organizations
- Organizational life cycles
- Globalization
- Changes in Information-Processing Technologies
- Demands on Organizational Processes
Four Symptoms of Structural Weakness
- Delay in decision making
- Poor quality decision making
- Lack of innovative response to changing environment
- High level of conflict
Organizational (Corporate) Culture
A pattern of basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught to new members as the way to perceive, think, and feel in the organization
Three levels of culture
- Artifacts
- Values
- Assumptions
Artifacts
Symbols of culture in the physical and social work environment
Values
Espoused: What members of an organization say they value

Enacted: Reflected in the way individuals actually behave
Assumptions
Deeply held beliefs that guide behavior and tell members of an organization how to perceive and think about things
Strong Culture
An organizational culture with a consensus on the values that drive the company and with an intensity that is recognizable even to outsiders
Fit Perspective
A culture is good only if it fits the industry or the firm's strategy
Adaptive Culture
An organizational culture that encourages confidence and risk taking among employees, has leadership that produces change, and focuses on the changing needs of customers
Five Most Important Elements in Managing Culture
- What leaders pay attention to
- How leaders react to crises
- How leaders behave
- How leaders allocate rewards
- How leaders hire and fire individuals
Organizational Socialization
The process by which newcomers are transformed from outsiders to participating, effective members of the organization
Socialization Process
1. Anticipatory Socialization
2. Encounter
3. Change and Acquisition
Anticipatory Socialization
All of the learning that takes place prior to the newcomer's first day on the job
Encounter
Newcomer learns the tasks associated with the job, clarifies roles, and establishes new relationships at work
Change or Acquistion
Newcomer begins to master the demands of the job
Job
A set of specified work and task activities that engage an individual in an organization
Organizational Position
A job in relation to other parts of the organization
Career
A sequence of job experiences over time
Work
Mental or physical activity that has productive results
Meaning of Work
The way a person interprets and understands the value of work as a part of life
Traditional Approaches to Job Design
- Scientific Management
- Job Enlargement/Rotation
- Job Enrichment
- Job Characteristics Model
Scientific Management
Emphasizes work simplification
Job Enlargement
A method of job design that increases the number of activities in a job to overcome the boredom of overspecialized work
Job Rotation
A variation of job enlargement in which workers are exposed to a variety of specialized jobs over time
Cross-Training
A variation of job enlargement in which workers are trained in different specialized tasks or activities
Job Enrichment
Designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors for into them
Job Characteristics Model
A framework for understanding person--job fit through the interaction of core job dimensions with critical psychological states within a person
Motivating Potential Score
([(Skill Variety)+(Task Identity)+(Task Significance)]/3)*(Autonomy)*(Feedback)
Social Information Processing (SIP) Model
A model that suggests that the important job factors depend in part on what others tell a person about the job
Emerging Issues in Design of Work
- Telecommuting
- Flextime
- Job Sharing
- Technology at Work
- Task Revision
- Skill Development
Telecommuting
Employees work at home or in other locations geographically separate from their company's main location
Flextime
An alternative work pattern that enables employees to set their own daily work schedules
Job Sharing
An alternative work pattern in which there is more that one person occupying a single job
Virtual Office
A mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and services
Technostress
The stress cause by new and advancing technologies in the workplace
Task Revision
The modification of incorrectly specified roles or jobs
Career
The pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person's life
Career Management
A lifelong process of learning about self, jobs, and organizations; setting personal career goals; developing strategies for achieving the goals, and revising the goals based on work and life experience
New Career Paradigm
- Discrete exchange
- Occupational excellence
- Organizational empowerment
- Project allegiance
Old Career Paradigm
- Mutual loyalty contract
- One-employer focus
- Top-down firm
- Corporate allegiance
The Career Stage Model
1. Establishment (17-40yo)
2. Advancement (40-60yo)
3. Maintenance (40-60yo)
4. Withdrawal (60+yo)
Establishment
The person learns the job and begins to fit into the organization and occupation
Advancement
People focus on increasing their competence
Maintenance
Individual tries to maintain productivity while evaluating progress toward career goals
Withdrawal
Individual contemplates retirement or possible career changes
Tasks of the NewComer
- Negotiate an effective psychological-contract
- Manage the stress of socialization
- Make the transition from organizational outsider to organizational insider
Career Path
A sequence of job experiences that an employee moves along during his or her career
Career Ladder
A structured series of job positions through which an individual progresses in an organization
Career functions provided by a Mentor
- Sponsorship
- Facilitating exposure and visibility
- Coaching
- Protection
Career Anchor
A network of self-perceived talents, motives, and values that guide an individual's career decisions
Planned Change
Change resulting from a deliberate decision to alter the organization
Unplanned Change
Change that is imposed on the organization and is often unforeseen
Incremental Change
Change of a relatively small scope, such as making small improvements
Strategic Change
Change of a larger scale, such as organizational restructuring
Transformational Change
Change in which the organization moves to a radically different, and sometimes unknown, future state
The Change Agent
Individual or group that undertakes that task of introducing and managing a change in an organization
Lewin's Three-Step Change Model
- Unfreezing
- Moving
- Refreezing
Unfreezing
Involves encouraging individuals to discard old behaviors by shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains that status quo
Moving
New attitudes, values, and behaviors are substituted for old ones
Refreezing
New attitudes, values, and behaviors are established as the new status quo