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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Internal Contols

policies/procedures to provide assurance that enterprise objectives are accomplished

Two types of Internal Controls

Accounting and Administrative Controls

Administrative Controls

controls for evaluating the performance and assessing compliance with the company policies and public laws

Accounting Controls

designed by safeguard company assets and ensure reliable accounting records

9 Key Features of Internal Controls

1. Separation of Duties

2. Quality of Employees

3. Bonded Employees

4. Required Absences

5. Performance Evaluations

6. Procedures manual

7. Authority and Responsibility

8. Renumbered Documents

9. Physical Control

What does it mean to Safeguard company assets?

Accounting control to protect assets from losing money, stealing and fraud

Fidelity Bond

provides insurance that protects a company from loss caused by employee dishonesty

Separation of Duties

when duties are separated, work of one employee can act as a check on the work of another employee, likelihood of fraud of theft is greatly reduced

What are 2 procedures that help protect against cash receipts?

proof of purchase, return it

cash paired is properly recorded

What are 2 procedures that help protect against cash disbursements?

pay with checks

balance cash in checkbooks (record everything )

Debit Memo

bank has reduced balance on bank statement because of checking accounting is liability

Credit Memo

bank has increased the balance in your bank accounting

example: interest

NSF Check

(non-sufficient funds)

customer sends check to payments, deposit in our bank and gets taken out of customers bank but not enough funds to pay deposited (bounced back)

Deposit in Transit

cash that a company has received and tis rightfully reports as Cash on its balance sheet but does not appear on bank statement until later date

Outstanding Check

check we wrote, reduced balance for books but it has yet to clear our bank (bank hasn't cashed them yet)

Cash short and over

when using a cash register employees sometimes make mistakes in collecting cash or making change for customers. If the cash register doesn't reconcile by small amount at the end of the day, we use this account to force the balance

when an account is short, this means...

it was recorded as an expense

when a account is over, this means...

it is recorded as credit or income

Petty Cash

used to make small expenditures that cannot wait for the formal check (writing process)

operated on a imprest basis

excellent internal control

imprest BASIS

means that when the fund gets low on cash it is replenished

imprest FUND

anytime management wants to count fund there should be cash and recipes that equal the fund value

when are the only times to use the petty cash fund?

1. when established the fund

2. when increasing the fund

3. when decreases the fund

What are the 4 types of audit options?

1. qualified

2. unqualified

3. adverse

4. disclaimer

what is the best audit opinion you can get?


What is the purpose of an Audit?

to guarantee that financial statements are materially correct

what are auditors responsible for?

they are responsible for an opinion of the financial stamens based on audit

What does the petty cash custodian do?

They are responsible for the cash in the fund or that organization

What is management's responsibility for audits?

they are responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of financial statement

Security and Exchange Commission (SEC)

a government agency authorized to establish and enforce the accounting rules for public complies

uncollectible accounting expense

when you (service revenue)*(% estimate of Uncollectible account) is commonly called % of revenue method of estimating uncollectible accounts expense

Allowance for doubtful accounts

an account where the company estimates a amount that they wont get paid from their customers

What is the effect of write off under the allowance method?

no effect

How do you find the Net Realizable Value?

Accounts receivable - Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

What is Net Realizable Value?

the amount expected to be collected from accounts receivable; face amount of receivables less than allow for estimated uncollectible amounts

What are the advantages of credit cards?

1. seller avoids doing credit checks

2. seller receives payment from credit card company

3. increases sales

4. credit card company assumes cost of slow collections and write offs

What are the disadvantages of credit cards?


How do you find Accounts Receivable Turnover?

sales/accounts receivable

What does the Account Receivable Turnover give you / tell you?

tells how many times during the year on average accounts receivable is collected (converted to cash )

What does it mean if it takes a longer time to collect accounts receivable? (vise versa)

the greater opportunity cost of lost income

Accounts receivable

when a company allows a customer to "buy now and pay later", the company's right to collect later

Notes Receivable

longer credit term needed or when receivable is large, company requires the customer issue a note that specifies interest and other credit terms

Operating cycle

days sales in inventory plus the days sales in accounting receivable

1. Cash

2. Purchase

3. Inventory

5. Sell

6. Accounting Receivable

7. Collect

How to find Average days of collect accounts receivable?

365/ accounts receivable turnover

What does the average days to collect accounts receivable?

this ratio tells the user how many days on average it takes a company to collect its account receivable

product cost (inventory cost)

cost that is included in inventory and associated with goods

example : cost to make the product itself

period cost

cost that are not included in inventory; all cost expect product costs

examples: selling and administrative costs, rent, operating costs, office supplies

How do you fin the cost of good available for sale?

Merchandise inventory + Cost of goods sold

Merchandise inventory

the goods purchased for resale

cost of goods sold

an expense account, cost incurred from making a profit

FOB shipping point

a type of transportation costs, where the buyers pays for a product to be shipped (merchandise inventory )

FOB Destination

a type of transportation out, seller pays for transportation out

Common Size Financial Statements

taking balance sheet and absolute dollar amounts and converting them to percentages of total assets. Used to do horizontal analysis and to compare companies of the same industry but different sizes.

Credit terms

used to show cash discounts which company used to give more incentive to buy

2/10, n/30

2% discount in 10 days

full amount due (n) in the number of days, the full amount is due

How do you find the Net income percentage (aka return on sales, sales ratio) ?

({Net income} / {Sales Revenue}) * 100

What is the Net Income Percentage?

net income expressed as percentage of sales proves insight as to how much of each sales dollar is left as net income after all expenses are paid; all about controlling the costs

What does that mean if a company has a higher return on sales percentage?

that means they are doing a better job of controlling the costs

How do you find the Gross margin percentage?

(Gross Margin/Sales) * 100

How do you find the gross margin?

sales revenue - cost of good sold

What is gross margin?

measures each sales dollar after cost of goods sold is deducted to cover expenses and provide a profit

If a company has a higher gross margin percentage...

its pricing its products higher

Perpetual inventory system

inventory account is adjusted perpetually (continually) thought the accounting period

periodic inventory system

account that is adjusted periodically

why is it a huge disadvantage to use the periodic inventory system?

no way to account for damage, lost and stolen inventory


are increases in assets or decreases in liabilities which result from peripheral/incidental transactions


decreases in assets or increases in liabilities which result from peripheral or incidental transactions

LIFO (last in, first out)

cost flow method that requires that the cost of the item purchased last be assigned to cost of goods sold (beginning inventory - ending inventory)

FIFO (First in, first out)

cost flow method requires the cost of the time purchased first to be assignment to cost of goods sold (purchases - ending inventory)

During rising prices is cost of good sold higher or lower?


Lost of Cost of Market (LCM)

when inventory must be reported at power of cost or market; happens when market value decreases the original prices

What is Inventory Turnover?

this measures how quickly a company sells its merchandise inventory

How do you we find Inventory turnover?

cost of good sold / inventory

What is Number of days to sell inventory?

this measures how quickly a company sells its merchandise inventory

How do you we find number of days to sell inventory?

365/Inventory Turnover

What does that mean if you have a lower average of number of days to sell inventory ? (vise versa)

company with the lower average number of day to sell is doing better!