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128 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organizational behavior (OB)
A field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations.
Human resource management
Takes the theories and principles studied in OB and explores the "nuts-and-bolts" applications of those principle organizations.
Strategic management
Focuses on product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization's profitability.
Job Satisfaction
Captures what employees feel when thinking about their jobs and doing their day day-to-day work.
Reflects employees' psychological responses to job demands that tax or exceed their capacities.
Captures the energetic forces that drive employee's work effort.
Trust, justice, and ethics
Reflect the degree to which employees feel that their company does business with fairness, honesty, and integrity.
Learning and decision making
Deals with how employees gain job knowledge and how they use that knowledge to make accurate judgments on the job.
Personality and culture values
Reflect the various traits and tendencies that describe how people act, with commonly studied traits (includes extraversion, conscientiousness, and collectivism).
Describes the cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative), emotional skills (other awareness, emotion regulation), and physical abilities (strength, endurance) that employees bring to a job.
Team characteristics and diversity
Describing how teams are formed, staffed, and composed, and how team members come to rely on one another as they do their work.
Team processes and communication
How teams behave, including their coordination, conflict, and cohesion.
Leader power and negotiation
Summarize how individuals attain authority over others.
Leader styles and behaviors
Capture the specific actions that leaders take to influence others at work.
Organizational structure
Dictates how the units within the firm link to (and communicate with) other units.
Organizational Culture
Captures "the way things are" in organizations -- shared knowledge about the values and beliefs that shape employee attitudes and behaviors.
Resource-based view (of organizations)
Describes what exactly makes resources valuable -- that is, what makes them capable of creating long-term profits for the firm.
Means [a resource] cannot be imitated (according to the resource-based view this suggests that a resource is more valuable when it is inimitable).
A collective pool of experience, wisdom, and knowledge that benefits the organization.
Numerous small decisions
Captures the idea that people make many small decisions day in and day out, week in and week out.
Socially complex resources
Culture, teamwork, trust, and reputation. It is not always clear how they came to develop, though it is clear which organizations do (and do not) possess them.
Rule of one-eighth
Of all companies, 1/2 will recognize relationship between people and profits, 1/2 will only make one (1) change instead of a comprehensive change, 1/2 will stick with it long enough to see results/actual change.
Method of experience
People hold firmly to some belief because it is consistence with their own experience and observations.
Method of intuition
People hold firmly to some belief because it "just stands to reason" (it seems obvious or self-evident).
Method of authority
People hold firmly to some belief because some respected official, agency, or source has said it so.
Method of science
People accent some belief because scientific studies have tended to replicate that result using a series of samples, settings, and methods.
A collection of assertions (verbal and symbolic) that specify how and why variables are related, as well the conditions in which they should/should not be related.
Written predictions that specify relationships between variables.
Describes the statistical relationship between 2 variables. They can be positive or negative and range from o (no statistical relationship) to + or - 1 (a perfect statistical relationship).
Causal inferences
Establishing that one variable really does cause another.

Requires establishing three (3) things:
1. Two (2) variables are correlated.
2. The presumed cause precedes the presumed effect in time.
3. No alternative explanations exists for the correlation.
Takes all of the correlations found in studies of a particular relationship and calculates a weighted average (such that correlations based on studies with large samples are weighted more than correlations based on studies with small samples).
Evidence-based management
A perspective that argues that scientific findings should form the foundation for management education. Meta-analysis formed the foundation of.
ROWE or "Results Only Work Environment"
Management practice (used by Best Buy) that places responsibility for managing the performance of work on the employee who's assigned to do that work. Rather than having to spend regular hours at work in an office, employees can come and go as they please. Their job performance is evaluated on the basis of whether the necessary results are achieved.
Job performance
The value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment.Places a boundary on which behaviors are/are not relevant to job performance.
Task performance
Employee behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods and services that the organization produces.

Set of explicit obligations that an employee must fulfill to receive compensation and continued employment.
Routine task performance
Involves well-known responses to demands that occur in a normal, routine, or otherwise predictable way.
Adaptive task performance
Involves employee responses to task demands that are novel, unusual, or at the very least, unpredictable.
Creative task performance
The degree to which individuals develop ideas or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful.
Job analysis
1. A list of the activities involved in a job is generated. This list generally results from data from several sources (observations, surveys, and employee interviews).
2. Each activity on the list is rated by "subject matter experts" according to things like the importance and frequency of the activity. Subject matter experts generally have experience performing the job or managing the job and therefore are in a position to judge the importance of specific activities to the organization.
3. The activities that are rated highly in terms of their importance and frequency are retained and used to define task performance. Those retained behaviors then find their way into training programs as learning objectives and into performance evaluation systems as measures to evaluate task performance.
Occupational Information Network (or O*NET)
An online database that includes, among other things, the characteristics of most jobs in terms of tasks, behaviors, and the required knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Citizenship behavior
Voluntary employee activities that may or may not be rewarded but that contribute to the organization by improving the overall quality of the setting in which work takes place.
Interpersonal citizenship behavior
Benefit coworkers and colleagues and involve assisting, supporting, and developing other organizational members in a way that goes beyond normal job expectations.
Involves assisting coworkers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they first arrive on the job.
Refers to keeping coworkers informed about matters that are relevant to them.
Involves maintaining a good attitude with coworkers, even when they've done something annoying or when the unit is going through tough times.
Organizational citizenship behavior
These behaviors benefit the larger organization by supporting and defending the company, working to improve its operations, and being especially loyal to it.
Involves speaking up and offering constructive suggestions for change.
Civic Virtue
Refers to participating in the company's operations at a deeper-than-normal level by attending voluntary meetings and functions, reading and keeping up with organizational announcements, and keeping areas of business news that affects the company.
Representing the organization in a positive way when out in public, away from the office, and away from work.
Counterproductive behavior
Employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organization goal accomplishment. These are things that employees mean to do, not things they accidentally do.
Property deviance
Behaviors that harm the organization's assets and possessions.
Represents the purposeful destruction of physical equipment, organizational processes, or company products.
Represents another form of property deviance and can be just as expensive as sabotage if not more.
Production deviance
Directed against the organization but focuses specifically on reducing the efficiency of work output
Wasting resources
The most common form of production deviance, when employees use too many materials or too much time to do too little work.
Substance abuse
The abuse of drugs or alcohol before coming to work or while on the job.

*Compromises efficiency
Political deviance
Refers to behavior that intentionally disadvantage other individuals rather than the larger organization.
Casual conversation about other people in which the facts are not confimred as true.
Represents the communication that's rude, impolite, discourteous, and lacking in good manners.
Personal aggression
Hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees.
Falls under "personal aggression" and occurs when employees are subjected to unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks from a colleague.
Occurs when an employee is assaulted or endangered in such a way that physical and psychological injures may occur.
Knowledge work
Statistics from the U.S. Department of Labor confirm that this type of work is becoming more prevalent than job inolving physical activity.
Service work
Work that provides nontangible goods to customers through direct electronic, verbal, or physical interaction.
Management by objectives (MBO)
A management philosophy that bases an employee's evaluations on whether the employee achieves specific performance goals.
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
Assess performance by directly assessing job performance behaviors. Uses "critical incidents" (short descriptions of effective and ineffective behaviors) to create a measure that can be used to evaluate employee performance.
360-degree feedback
Involves collecting performance information not just from the supervisor but from anyone else who might have firsthand knowledge about the employee's performance behaviors.

The hope is that this 360-degree perspective will provide a more balance and comprehensive examination of performance. By explicity comparing self-provided ratings with the ratings obtained from others, employees can develop a better sense of how their performance may be deficient in the eyes of others and exactly where they need to focus their energies to improve.
Vitality curve
Jack Welch, General Electric. Forces managers to rank all of their people into one of three categories.
1. Top 20% (A players)
2. Vital Middle 70% (B players)
3. Bottom 10% (C players)

A players possess "the 4 Es of GE leadership" - very high Energy levels, the ability to Energize others around common goals, the Edge to make tough yes-and-no decisions, and the ability to consistently Execute and deliver on their promises.
The B players are the backbone of the company but lack the passion of the As.
The C players are those who cannot get the job done and are let go.
Forced ranking system
"Rank and Yank" or "Dead Man's Curve" aka - Welch's vitality curve.
Organizational commitment
The desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of the organization. Organizational commitment influences whether an employee stays a member of the organization (is retained) or leaves to pursue another job (turns over).
Withdrawal behavior
A set of actions that employees perform to avoid the work situation -- behaviors that may eventually culminate in quitting the organization.
Affective commitment
A desire to remain a member of an organization due to an emotional attachment to, and involvement with, that organization. You stay because you WANT to.
Continuance commitment
A desire to remain a member of an organization because of the costs associated with leaving it. You stay because you NEED to.
Normative commitment
A desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation. You stay because you OUGHT to.
Focus of commitment
The various people, places, and things that can inspire a desire to remain a member of an organization.
Averages together results from multiple studies investigating the same relationship.
Erosion model
Employees with fewer bonds will be the most likely to quit the organization.
Social influence model
Employees who have direct linkages with "leavers" will themselves become more likely to leave.
Summarizes a person's links to the organization and the community. Concept that demonstrates the work and non-work forces that can bind us to our current employer.
An active, destructive response by which an individual either ends or restricts organizational membership.
An active, constructive response in which individuals attempt to improve the situation.
A passive, constructive response that maintains public support for the situation while the individual privately hopes for improvement. "Grin and bear it"
A passive, destructive response in which interest and effort in the job declines. "Check out"
Possess high commitment and high performance and are held up as role models for other employees.
Possess high commitment and low task performance but perform many of the voluntary "extra-role" activities that are needed to make the organization function smoothly.
Lone Wolves
Possess low levels of organizational commitment but high levels of task performance and are motivated to achieve work goals for themselves, not necessarily for their company.
Possess low levels of both organization commitment and task performance and merely exert the minimum level of effort needed to keep their jobs.
Psychological withdrawal
Consists of actions that provide a mental escape from the work environment. "Warm-chair attrition"
When employees appear to be working but are actually distracted by random thoughts or concerns.
Refers to the verbal chatting about non-work topics that goes on in cubicles and offices or at the mailbox or vending machines.
Looking busy
Indicates an intentional desire on the part of employees to look like they're working, even when not performing work tasks.
Use work time and resources to complete something other than their job duties.
Using Internet, e-mail, and instant messaging access for personal enjoyment rather than work duties.
Physical withdrawal
Consists of actions that provide a physical escape, whether short term or long term, from the work environment.
Reflects the tendency to arrive at work late (or leave early).
Long breaks
Involve longer-than-normal lunches, soda/coffee breaks, and so forth that provide a physical escape from work.
Missing meetings
Employees neglect important work function while away from the office.
Occurs when employees miss an entire day of work. There is a rhythm, likely to be absent on Mondays or Fridays, and streaks of good attendance create a sort of pressure to be absent.
Voluntarily leaving the organization.
Independent forms model (of withdrawal)
The various withdrawal behaviors are uncorrelated with one another, occur for different reasons, and fulfill different needs on the part of employees.
Compensatory forms model (of withdrawal)
The various withdrawal behaviors negatively correlate with one another -- that doing one means you're less likely to do another. The idea is that any form of withdrawal can compensate for, or neutralize, a sense of dissatisfaction, which makes the other forms unnecessary.
Progression model (of withdrawal)
The various withdrawal behaviors are positively correlated: the tendency to daydream or socialize leads to the tendency to come in late or take long breaks, which leads to the tendency to be absent or quit.
Represents a form of involuntary turnover, when employees are forced to leave the organization regardless of their previous commitment. Used to cut cost but doesn't work (harms profitability and stock price).
Survivors/Survivor syndrome
The employees who remain in the organization after a downsizing.

Characterized by anger, depression, fear, distrust, and guilt.
Psychological contracts
Reflect employees' beliefs about what they owe the organization and what the organization owes them. These contracts are shaped by the recruitment and socialization activities that employees experience, which others convey promises and expectations that shape beliefs about reciprocal obligations.
Transactional contracts
Based on a narrow set of specific monetary obligations (e.g., the employee owes attendance and protection of proprietary information; the organization owes pay and advancement opportunities).
Relational contracts
Based on a broader set of open-ended and subjective obligations. (e.g., the employee owes loyalty and the willingness to go above and beyond; the organization owes job security, development, and support).
Perceived organizational support
Reflects the degree to which employees believe that they organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being.
Job satisfaction
A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences. It represents how you FEEL about your job and what you THINK about your job.
Things that people consciously or subconsciously want to see or attain.
Value-percent theory
Job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive that your job supplies the things that you value.

Dissatisfaction = (Vwant - Vhave) (Vimportance)
Pay satisfaction
Refers to employees' feelings about their pay, including whether its as much as they deserve, secure, and adequate for both normal expenses and luxury items. It is based on a comparison of the pay that employees want and the pay they receive.
Promotion satisfaction
Refers to employees' feelings about the company's promotion policies and their execution, including whether promotions are frequent, fair, and based on ability.
Supervision satisfaction
Reflects employees' feelings about their boss, including whether the boss is competent, polite, and a good communicator (rather than lazy, annoying, and too distant).
Coworker satisfaction
Refers to employees' feelings about their fellow employees, including whether coworkers are smart, responsible, helpful, fun, and interesting as opposed to lazy, gossipy, unpleasant, and boring.
Satisfaction with the work itself
Reflects employees' feelings about their actual work tasks, including whether those tasks are challenging, interesting, respected, and make use of key skills rather than being dull, repetitive, and uncomfortable. This facet focuses on what employees actually do.
Meaningfulness of work
Reflects the degree to which work tasks are viewed as something that "counts" in the employee's system of philosophies and beliefs.
Responsibility for outcomes
Captures the degree to which employees feel that they're key drivers of the quality of the unit's work.
Responsibility for outcomes
Captures the degree to which employees feel that they are key drivers of the quality of a unit's work.
Knowledge of results
Reflects the extent to which employees know how well (or how poorly) they are doing.
Job characterisitic theory
Describes the central characteristics of intrinsically satisfying jobs. Argues that the 5 core job characteristics (VISAF) result in high levels of the three psychologoical states, making work tasks more satisfying.
Job enrichment
The process of using the 5 items in the job characteristics model to create more satisfaction. Enrichment efforts can boost job satisfaction level, and heighten work accuracy and customer satisfaction. Training and labor cost tend to rise as a result of such change.
States of feeling that are often mild in intentsity, last for an extended period of time, and are not explicitly directed at or caused by anything.
Affective events theory
Workplace events can generate affective reactions -- reactions that can go on to influence work attitudes and behaviors.
States of feeling that are often intense, last for only a few minutes, and are clearly directed at (and caused by) someone or some circumstance.
Emotional labor
The need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully.
Emotional contagion
Shows that one person can "catch" or "be infected by" the emotions of another person.
Life satisfaction
The degree to which employees feel a sense of happiness with their lives.