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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Strategic Management
a process, an approach to addressing the competitive challenges an organization faces
Strategy Formulation
Has 5 major compenents:

1) Mission - statement of the organization's reasons for being

2) Goals - what organization hopes to achieve in the medium-to long-term future

3) External analysis - examining the organization's operating environment to identify strategic opportunities and threats

4) Internal analysis - examining and organization's strengths and weaknesses

5) Strategic choice - organization's strategy
Strategic HR Management
the pattern of planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals
Directional Strategies
- external growth strategy
- concentration strategy
- downsizing
- internal growth strategy
- mergers and acquisitions
External Growth Strategy
An emphasis on acquiring vendors and suppliers or buying businesses that allow a company to expand into new markets
Concentration Strategy
A strategy focusing on increasing market share, reducing costs, or creating and maintaining a market niche for products and services
Internal Growth Strategy
A focus on new market and product development, innovation, and joint ventures
The planned elimination of large numbers of personnel, designed to enhance organizational effectiveness
Emergent Strategies
Those that evolve from the grass roots of the organization and can be thought of what organizations actually do, as opposed to what they intend to do.
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
the government's attempt to ensure that all individuals have an equal chance for employment, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
Equal Pay Act of 1963
An amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act, requires that men and women performing equal jobs receive equal pay.

exceptions: seniority, merit, quantity or quality of production
Title VII Civil Rights Act 1964
Forbids discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

Applies to employers with 15 or more employees working 20 or more weeks per year; labor unions; and employment agencies
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967
Prohibits discrimination in employment against individuals 40 years of age or older.

Applies to employes with 15 or more employees working 20 or more weeks per year; labor unions; employment agencies; federal government
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities

Applies to employers with 15 or more employees
Pregnancy Act DIscrimination
Prohibits discrimination on the basis or pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions

Applies to employers with 15 or more employees
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
One of two agencies responsible for the enforcement of all EEO laws and executive orders.

- Investigating and resolving discrimination complaints
- Gathering information
- Issuing guidelines
Enforcing of EEO Agencies
- Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
- Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs
Fair Employment and Housing Act (CA)
Department of Fair Employment and Housing
Executive Order 11246
Affirmative Action
Prohibits government contractors and subcontractors from discriminations

employers receiving more than $10,000 from federal government must take, and those with contracts greater than $50,000 must develop a written.
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
Responsible for enforcing the executive orders that cover companies doing business with the federal government.

Annually audits government contractors

3 components:
- Utilization analysis
- Goals and timetables
- action steps
Forms of discrimination
- DIsparate treatment
- Disparate impact
Disparate Treatment
exists when individuals in similar situations are treated differently based upon race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability status

- Bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQ)
- McDonnell Douglas Corp v. Green
Disparate Impact
occurs when a facially neutral employment practice disproportionately excludes a protected group from employment opportunities.

- four-fifths rule
- standard deviation rule
- wards cove packing co. vs. antonio
- griggs vs. duke power
Reasonable Accommodation
places a special obligation on an employer to affirmatively do something to accommodate an individual's disability or religion

- Religion and Accommodation
- Disability and Accommodation
Sexual Harassment
unwanted sexual advances
- Quid pro quo harassment
- A hostile working environment

3 conditions:
- The plaintiff cannot have "invited or incited" the advances
- Harassment must have been severe
- The court must determine the liability of the organization for actions of its employees
Quid pro quo harassment
occurs when some kind of benefit (or punishment) is made contingent on the employee's submitting (or not submitting) to sexual advances
Hostile working environment
occurs when someone's behavior in the workplace creates an environment that makes it difficult for someone of a particular sex to work
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
The law that authorizes the federal government to establish and enforce occupational safety and health standards for all places of employment engaging in interstate commerce.
General Duty Clause
The provision of the OSHA that states that an employer has an overall obligation to furnish employees with a place of employment free from recognized hazards
Work-flow analysis
- analyzing work outputs
- analyzing work processes
- analyzing work inputs

provides a means for the managers to understand all the tasks required to produce a high-quality product

providing the skills necessary to perform those tasks
Work outputs
the product of a work unit and is often an unidentifiable thing, such as a completed purchase order, and employment test, or a hamburger. Can also be a service.
Work processes
the activities that members of a work unit engage in to produce a given output. Consists of operating procedures that specify how things should be done at each stage of the development of the product.
Work inputs
raw materials, equipment, and human skills needed to perform the tasks
Organizational Structure
provides a cross-sectional overview of the static relationship between individuals and units that create outputs.

two important dimensions:
- centralization
- departmentalization
Degree to which decision-making authority resides at the top of the organizational chart as opposed to being distributed throughout lower levels
Degree to which work units are grouped based on functional similarity or similarity of work flow

- functional structure
- divisional structure
Functional Structure (departmentalization)
employes a functional departmentalization scheme with relatively high levels of centralization
Divisional Structure (departmentalization)
combine a divisional departmentalization scheme with relatively low levels of centralization
Importance of job analysis to managers
- Work redesign
- Human resource planning
- Selection
- Training
- Performance appraisal
- Career planning
- Job evaluation
Job description
a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs)
Job specification
a list of knowledge, skills, and abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs)
Job Analysis Methods
- Questionnaires
- Interviews
- Observation
- Work diaries

- Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
- Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS)
- Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
O*NET (Occupational Information Network)
Instead of relying on fixed job titles and narrow task descriptions, uses a common language that generalizes across jobs to describe the abilities, work styles, work activities, and work context required for various occupations that are more broadly defined
Job Design
The process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that will be required in a given job
Job Redesign
The process of changing the tasks or the way work is performed in an existing
Determining Labor Demand
- derived from product/service demanded
- external in nature

Determining Labor Supply
- internal movements caused by transfers, promotions, turnover, retirements, etc.
- transitional matrices identify employee movements over time
- useful for AA / EEO purposes

Determining Labor Supply or Shortage from labor supply and demand
Strategies for Reducing Expected Labor Surplus
pay reductions
work sharing
hiring freeze
natural attrition
early retirement
Strategies for reducing an expected labor shortage
temporary employees
retrained transfers
turnover reductions
new external hires
technological innovation
Transitional Matrix
matrix showing the proportion (or number) of employees in different job categories at different times
Leading indicator
an objective measure that accurately predicts future labor demand
Human Resource Recruitment Process
The practice or activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees

goal is to ensure that the organization has a number of reasonably qualified applicants (who would find the job acceptable) to choose from when a vacancy occurs
Personnel Policies
Characteristics of the vacancy are more important than recruiters sources

- internal versus external recruiting
- extrinsic versus intrinsic rewards
- image advertising
Recruiter's functional area
most organizations must choose whether their recruiters are specialists in human resources or experts at particular jobs.
Recruiter's traits
Two traits stand out when applicants' reactions to recruiters are examined:

1) "warmth" - degree to which the recruiter seems to care about the applicant and is enthusiastic about her potential to contribute to the company

2) "informativeness"
Recruiter's realism
Applicants are highly sensitive to negative information. Realistic job previews do lower expectations and can help reduce future turnover in the workforce.
Enhancing Recruiter Impact
- provide timely feedback
- avoid rude behaviors that might convey the wrong organizational impression
- Recruit in teams rather than as individuals
Types of selection methods
- interviews
- references
- biographical data
- physical ability test
- cognitive ability test
- personality inventories
- work samples
- honesty and drug tests
Selection Method Standards
- Reliability
- Validity
- Generalizability
- Utility
- Legality
The consistency of a performance measure; the degree to which a performance measure is free from random error
The extent to which a performance measure assesses all the relevant -- and only the relevant -- aspects of job performance

Criterion-Related Validation
- Predictive Validation
- Concurrent Validation

Content Validation
Criterion-Related Validity
A method of establishing the validity of a personnel selection method by showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job-performance scores
Predictive Validation
A criterion-related validity study that seeks to establish an empirical relationship between applicants' test scores and their eventual performance on the job
Concurrent Validation
A criterion-related validity study in which a test is administered to all the people currently in a job and then incumbents' scores are correlated with existing measures of their performance on the job
Content Validation
A test-validation strategy performed by demonstrating that the items, questions, or problems posed by a test are a representative sample of the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job
The degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts
The degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhances the effectiveness of selecting personnel in real organizations
All selection methods must conform to existing laws and legal precedents

Three acts have formed the basis for a majority of the suits filed by job applicants:
- Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1991
- Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
- Americans with Disabilities Act of 1991
Selection Interviews
a dialogue initiated by one or more persons to gather information and evaluate the qualifications of an applicant for employment.

- should be structured, standardized, focused on goals oriented to skills and behaviors that are observable
- interviewers should plan to come out of each interview with a quantitative rating
- interviewers should also have a structured note-taking system that will aid recall when it comes to satisfying the ratings
Situational Interview
confronts applicants on specific issues, questions, or problems that are likely to arise on the job.

consists of:
- experience-based questions
- future-oriented questions
Cognitive Ability Test
differentiates individuals based on their mental rather than physical capacities.
Personality inventories
categorize individuals by their personality characteristics
Work samples
simulate the job in miniatured form
Physical ability test
relevant for predicting not only job performance by occupational injuries and disabilities

- muscular tension, power, endurance
- cardiovascular endurance
- flexibility
- balance
- coordination
Honesty tests
The Polygraph Act of 1988 banned the use of polygraph tests for private companies except pharmaceutical and security guard suppliers.

Paper-and-pencil honesty testing attempts to asses the likelihood that employees will steal.
- since these tests are new, there is little evidence on their effectiveness
Drug tests
tend to be reliable and valid

major controversies:
- invasion of privacy
- unreasonable search and seizure
- violation of due process

-Tests should be administered systematically to all applicants applying for the same job.
-Testing is likely to be more defensible when there are safety hazards associated with the failure to perform.
-Test results should be reported to the applicant, who should have an avenue to appeal.