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41 Cards in this Set

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Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory

people are motivated by 5 levels of needs:


1. physiological


2. safety


3. Love


4. esteem


5. self actualization

Alder's ERG Theory

3 basic needs influence behavior:


1. extistence


2. relatedness


3. growth

McClelland's acquired needs theory

achievement, affiliation, and power are major motives determining people's behavior in the workplace

Herzberg's two factor theory

work satisfaction/dissatisfaction arise from motivating factors and dissatisfaction from hygiene factors



equity theory

focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others

expectancy theory

suggests that people are motivated by 2 things:


1. how much they want something


2. how likely they think they are to get it

goal-setting theory

employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging but achievable

reinforcement theory

attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tend to be repeated, where as behavior with negative consequences tend not to be repeated

job context

environment of work

positive reinforcement

strengthening behavior by administering rewards of positive outcomes after a desired behavior is performed

negative reinforcement

strengthening behavior by making it clear that there will be unpleasant consequences if the behavior is not performed

punishment

weakening undesired behaviors by administering negative outcomes or unpleasant consequences when the behavior is performed

extinction

weakening undesired behavior by ignoring or not reinforcing them

negative inequity

feeling like you are being treated less fairly than other coworkers

positive inequity

feeling like you are being treated more fairly than other coworkers

expectancy

the belief that work efforts will result in performance

instrumentality

belief that performance will result in rewards

valence

perceived value of the reward

operant behavior modifications

operant behavior can be modified through a process of reinforcement based on the law of effects

reinforcement process

behavior can be changed through positive factors or negative factors

law of effects

behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated, behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated

direct compensation

financial or non financial. ex: salary or vehicle

indirect compensation

vacation days, health insurance. fringe benefits

pay for performance

bases pay on one's results

piece rate

employees are paid according to how much output they produce

sales commission

sales represenatives are paid a percentage of the earnings the company made from their sales

bonuses

cash given to employees who achieve specific performance objectives

profit sharing

distribution to employees of a percentage of the company profits

gainsharing

distribution of savings to groups of employees who reduced cost and increased measurable productivity

stock options

certain employees are given the right to buy stock at a future date for discounted prices

pay for knowledge

ties employee pay to the number of job-relevant skills or academic degrees they earn

leadership

the ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals using power to influence thinking of people into desired directions

reward power

power that results from manager's authority to reward their subordinates

coercive power

results from managers' authority to punish their subordinates

authority

the right to perform or command

expert power

resulting from one's specialized information or expertise

referent power

power deriving from one's personal attraction

path-goal leadership theory

the effective leader makes available to followers desirable rewards in the workplace and increases their motivation by clarifying the paths that will help them achieve those goals and providing them with support

transactional leadership

focusing on clarifying employees roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishments contingent on performance

transformational leadership

transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests

servant leadership

focuses on providing increased service to others-meeting the goals of both followers and the organization-rather than to oneself