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222 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_____ i am / am not the captain of my fate ; it indicates how much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts
locus of control
What are the 5 personaility traits important in organizations ?
locus of control , self-efficacy, Self-esteem, self-monitoring, emotional intelligence
_____ believe you control your own destiny

exhibits less anxiety, greater work motivation, and stronger expectations that efforts lead to performance (also obtains higher salleries)
Resist close managerial supervision ( jobs require high inititative and lower compliance )
Respond more productively to incentives such as merit pay or sales commonisions
internal locus of control
____ believe external forces control you
jobs are highly structured jobs requiring greater compliance
external locus of control
_____ I can/cant do this task

is belief in ones personal ability to do a task
self efficacy
_____ is associated with learned helplessness: the debilitating lack of faith in ones ability to control ones environment
low self efficacy
____ i like or dislike myself
self esteem
____ is the extent to which people like or dislike themselves, their overall self evaluation
self esteem
people with _______ handle failure better , emphasize the postive, when faced with pressure situaitons, egotistical and boastful
high self esteem
people with ______: focus on their weaknesses and to have had primarily negative thoughts; more dependent on others and are more apt to be influenced by them; less likely to take independent jobs
low self esteem
____ im fairly able or unable to adapt my behavior to others
self monitoring
_____ is the extent to which people are able to observe their own behavior and adapt it to external situations
self monitoring
the better at ________ , the more successful you will be
self monitoring
_______ im pretty good or not good ad understanding my emotions and the emotions of others
emotional intelligence
_____ is the ability to cope, to emphasize with others and to be self motivated
emotional intelligence
_____ is defined as a learned predisposition toward a given object ; they directly influence behavior
What are the 3 components of attitudes?
1. affective component
2. cognitive component
3. behavioral component
____ consists of the feelings and emotions one has about a situation
affective component
_____ consists of the beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation
cognitive component
____ aka intention component refers to how one intends or expects to behave towards a situation
behavioral component
______ describes the psychological discomfort a person experiences between his or her cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior
cognitive discomfort
What are the 3 factors that how people deal with discomfort depend upon?
1. importance
2. control
3. rewards
What are the three ways to reduce cognitive dissonance?
1. change your attitue and or behavior
2. belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior
3. find consonant elements that outweigh the dissonant ones
_____ is the process of interpreting and understanding one's environment
What are the 4 distortions in perception?
1. selective perception
2. stereotyping
3. the halo effect
4. casual attributions
_____ i dont want to hear about that

it is the tendency to filter out information that is discomforting, that seems irrelevant or that contradicts one;s beliefs
selective perception
_____ are those sorts of people are pretty much the same

is the tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics on ebelieves are typical of the group to which that individual belongs
______ is the belief that differeing traits and abilities make males and females particularity well suited to different roles
sex role stereotypes
______ tend to depict older workers as less involved in their work, less satisfied, less motivated and less committed
age stereotypes
_____ one trait tells me all i need to know

we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait
the halo effect
______ not only can a single positive trait be generalized into an array of positive traits, but the same generalization may be made for a negative trait
horn and halo effect
______ is the activity of inferring causes for observed behavior
casual attribution
_______ people attribtue another persons behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to situational factors
fundamental attribution bias
_______ people tend to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure
self serving bias
the ________ , also known as pygmalion effect, describes the phenomenon in which people's expectations of themselves or others lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true
self-fulfilling prophecy
What are the 6 popular incentives in compensation plans?
1. pay for performance
2. bonuses
3. profit sharing
4. garnishing
5. stock options
6. pay for knowledge
_____ ( merit pay): bases pay on one's results
pay for performance
____ employees are paid according to how much output they produce
piece rate
_____ sales representatives are paid a percentage of the earnings the company made for their sales
sales commission
______ are cash awards given to employees who acheive specific performance objectives
_____ is the distribution to employees of a percentage of the company's profits
profit sharing
_____ is the distribution of savings or gains to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity
_____ certain employees are given the right to buy stock at a future date for a discounted price
stock options
_______ (skill based pay) ties employee pay to the number of job relevant skills or academic degrees they earn
pay for knowledge
________ dividing responsibility for leading among two or more managers
shared leadership
_______ is a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process in which people share responsibility for leading
shared leadership
________ meeting the goals of followers and the organization, not of oneself

_____ focus on providing increased service to others meeting the goals of both followers and the organization-rather than to themselves
servant leadership

servant leaders
Job satisfaction > organizational commitment (identify with our company and believe in their goals) > ________
less _______ > tardiness, absenteeism and turnover
withdrawl behaviors
under turnover outcomes, more likely to engage in ____________ (ocbs) - extra things for your organization
organizational citizenship behaviors
______________ (cwbs) = sabotage, theft, fighting
less counterproductive work behaviors
____ = role incompatible ; ex: professors are graded more on the research they do while at the university than teaching
role incompatible
_____= too much; too dificult, too fast
role overload
_____= role is not clear
role ambiguity
What is the 5 factor model of personality? (COEEA)
1. Conscientiousness (dependable ) - most important in the workplace
2. openness to experience
3. extraversion (outgoing)
4. emotional stability (opposite neuroticism)
5. agreeableness
What are the personailty factors that increase stress?
neuroticism, Type A personaility
_______ is high negative affectivity (high na); negative feelings ; little things distress them, distressed throughout their lives; high dissatisfaction (focusing on the negatives) ; 30% of our high na is genetic
____ driven to save time; be efficient > underlying anger
type "a" personality
What are 3 personality factors that decrease stress?
1. hardiness trait
2. internal locus of control
3. proactive personality
_____ sense of purpose; internal locus of control, change is normal
hardiness trait
_____ you feel like you influence your world
internal locus of control
____ looks for opportunities ; proceed even against obstacles; high self efficacy
proactive personality
___ is ability to do the task
What are 2 distortions that reduce our stress?
1. self serving bias
2. selective perception
_____ credit for our success and blame other or environment for out failures
self-serving bias
_____ ignore information with which we disagree
selective perception
____ is an inverted u-shaped curve;
stress; positive stress or good stress= eustress
____ is very little stress or too much stress
to reduce stress for a new applicant used ________ it is both positive and negative issues about the job
"realistic job preview" (RJP)
______ decreases expectations = increases satisfaction, increases role clarity, and decreases stress which all together decreases turnover
realistic job preview
___________ leads to lower expectations which leads to higher satisfaction and less stress with greater role clarity; turnover ratio is reduced by 20%
the Model RJP
What are the 3 holistic (or whole) treatments?
1. escape
2. symptom management
3. control
___vacation from work
____ exercise after work
sympotom management
____ change the situation (ex: putting socks in laundry instead of on the floor)
What are the 3 stages of burnout?
1. depersonalization of client / pt/ customer
2. feeling of low personal accomplishment
3. emotional exhaustion
_____ is for indivudals who work in human servies
burnout is less common in people who have ______
lower expectations
occupational stress looks at 2 things: _____ and _______
psychological demand and decisional control
To deal with substance abuse, _____ are used
EAP - employee assistance programs
true or false: 4 x more men kill themselves than women
What do men ? women? use to commit suicide?
men = guns
women = pills
_______ and _____ would have more stress than Docotrs lawyers because its very demanding with little or no control
waitstaff and firefighters
_____ are forces that act on or within us to cause us to behave in a goal-directed manner
What are the content(need) theories of motivation? (4)
1. maslow's need hierarchy
2. alderfer's modification
3.herzberg's 2-factor theory
4.McClelland's Acquired needs
______ :
lists lowest to higher
lower-order & higher-order needs
satisfaction - progression
maslow's need hierarchy
List Maslow's hierarchy from bottom to top
1. physiological needs : physical
2. safety needs: safety
3. belongingness/social needs: affilitaiton
4. self-esteem needs: esteem
5. self-actulaization needs: self actualisation : realizing your full potential: never really gets satisfied
1. ERG theory ( existence, relatedness, growth)
2. Frustration -regression
Alderfer's modification
____ is satisfaction versus dissatisfaction
Herzburg's 2 factor theory
1. hygienes and motivators
2. dissatisfaction and satisfaction
Herzberg's 2-factor theory
1. need for power(influence and control others for social good) ; job types: CEO , Management
2. Need for affiliation (trusting and warm relationship) job type: HR
3. need for acheivement ( challenging goals and immediate feedback) job type: sales
McClelland's Acquired Needs
______ are forces outside of us
exogenous theory
Skinner's reinforcement theory is considered a _________
exogenous theory
________ says if we engage in a behavior with postive consequence we repeat the behavior
if we engage in behaivor with negative consequences we do not repeat the behavior
Thorndike's law of effect (1911)
What are the 2 reinforcement strategies to deal with desirable behavior?
1. postive reinforcement
2. avoidance learning (negative reinforcement)
What are the 2 strategies to deal with undesirable behavior?
1. extinction
2. punishment
_____ increases the frequencey or strength of a desirable behaivor by providing postive consequences

ex: mary come in on time and the teacher smiles at her
positive reinforcement
_____ increasing the frequency or strength of desirable behavior by teaching the avoidance of negative consequences

ex: wear a hard hat

avoiding bad outcomes by doing desirable things
avoidance learning
____ reudincg the frequency or strength of an undesirable behavior by removing positive consequences
ex: getting everything to stop laughing at class clown
_____ reducing the frequency or strength of an undesirbale behavior by providing negative consequences

ex: if you do this again you will be fired (mary comes in late to class and the teacher frowns at her)
Skinner's approach to _____________ is a carrot and stick method; but he didnt take into account that people think
The great Jackass Fallacy
_____ are cognitive or thinking theories
process theories
_____ based on fairness was developed by Adams

consists of
1. formula
2. inputs and outcomes
3. experience inequity , how do you restore equity
The equity theory
What is the formula for the equity theory?
outcomes - self/ inputs- self = outcomes - others/ inputs - others
____ are what you bring into the workplace, job, education, skils, experience
inputs (equity theory)
____ are rewards - money, benefits, what you think your gettin out of your job/promotions
experience inequity, how do you restore equity?
1. increase outcomes
2. decrease inputs (done the most)
3. leave the field (quit)
_____________ : cognitively distort inputs and outcomes ; change comparison other
experience inequity (how do you restore equity)
________ looking at what others in the same profession (job) make
change comparison other
In adam's equity theory, ______ - you can be over compensated and that creates inequity
How do we restore equity?
increase quality
how sensitive are we to over compensation?
not very sensative
true or false? research is still going on in equity theory
_____ was the amount i receive fair, this leads to satisfied
distributive justice
____ was the deciision making process used by managemnt fair this is committed to my organization
procedural justice
_____ is the most cognitive of all theories
the model is efforts --> performance --> rewards
three steps are expecatancy, instrumentailty, valence

motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence

interference to motivation are phobia, nepotism and money or time off
Vroom's expectancy theory
______ consists of performance standards and deadlines
1. goal setting directs our attention, regulates our efforts, develop a stragey, and persists efforts
2. in labs, best goals are difficult and specific
3. in workplace best goals are challenging and specific
4. spefic goals reduce variability (makes them good)
5. difficult of challenging goals increase performance
Locke's Goal setting theory
What is a SMART goal?
_____ are 2 or more freely interacting individuals who have collective norms and share a common identity
___ are expected ways to behave
for groups or teams the ideal size is _____ and ____ is the second best
5 ( odd number because of the majority)

3 is second best

in most cases 2 heads are better than one
What are the 6 stages groups go through for development?
1. forming
2. storming
3. norming
4. performing
5. maturing
6. adjouring
____ orientation
____ dissatisfaction (power order is determined)
____ agree on behavior
_____ task
____ value the individual ( from another body of literature)
____ termination
What are 3 threats to group function ?
1. social loafing
2. asch effect
3. groupthink
_____ individual efforts goes down ,as the size of the group goes up
social loafing
____ individual conformity in a group (1940's) ; ___% agreed with group even though they knew the answer was wrong
Asch effect

ex: individuals were asked which line out of 3 was the shortest or longest. Complied with group and said that the medium line was the longest although they knew it was not
1. such overconformity that group makes dumb decisons
2. symptoms: invulnerable, moral unanimous, self-censorship
group think
What are the symptoms of groupthink?
_____ have one leader; individual is evaluated
formal work groups
___ smaller and shared leadership; evaluate both team's accomplishments and the individual's contribution to the group
on teams there are typically what 2 types of leaders?
task leader
maintenance leader
____ gets the job done
task leader
___ relaitonships on the team
maintenance leader
___ getting things done even when others dont like it
_____ voluntarily following you
What are the 5 bases of power?
1. legitimate power (organizationally based power)
2. reward power (organizationally based power)
3. coercive power (organizationally based power)
4. referent power (personally based )
5. expert power (personally based)
_____ is a job in an organization
organizationally - based power
____ is what you are like personally
personally based
_____ is because you occupy a position
legitimate power
_____ is a positively reinforce
reward power
____ is threats and punishment
coercive power
____ people like you and want to be like you (role model)
referent power
_____ specialized knowledge
expert power
____ power makes people dissatisfied
coercion power
_____ powers are more important
personally based powers
____ power is the most important
expert power
In B.C. there was the __________ = leaders are born not made
the greatest man theory
In last century we have been searching for _____= distinctive characteristics of an individual that define leadership
Some small positive correlations to _______ are charisma; knowledge; honest; inspirational; forward looking; somewhat intellegent ; need for power
The __________ consisted of The Ohio state studies , University of Michigan, and Blake and Mouton (managerial grid)
1960's behavioral phase
1. initiating structure (getting the job done; task)
2. consideration (attending to the employee)
3. 70% of the behavior of leaders are described by these 2 behaviors
The Ohio State Studies
1. task centered behaviors (job or productivity)
2. employee centered behaviors
university of michigan
1. now called leadership grid (9,9 grid)
2. improverish, authority-obeidence , country club and team
Blake and Mouton (managerial grid)
______ is the ideal way to manage people
team leader
What are the 3 situational leadership theories?
1. fieldler's contingency theory
2. House's path-goal theory
3. Hersey & Blanchard (life cycle theory)
_____ your personality that determine whether you are relationship oriented or task oriented

LPC and Ideal situation
Fiedler's contingency theory
_____ measures your personality ; low LPC= task oriented, high LPC = relationship oriented
least-preferred coworker
_______ measures high position power , good leader, high task structure
IDeal situation
____ supervisor can hire and fire
high position power
___ member relations
good leader
____ specific steps to follow to get the job done ; match personality to work situations
high task structure
____ is very task oriented and is very unfavorable
low LPC's
____ is relationship oriented and moderately unfavorable
high LPC's
_____ is flexible in choosing our leadership style dependent on the situation of the characteristics of the employees
House's path-goal theory
for ______ there are 4 leadership styles and four situations
house's path goal theory
What are the four leadership styles of house's path goal theory ?
1. directive leadership style
2. supportive leadership style
3. acheivement oriented
4. participattive style
What are the four situations of House's path goal theory?
1. stressful environment
2. new employees who dont know what they are doing
3. professionals who are mature
4. difficult decision to make and need employees committment
_____ are task centered (michigan ) or initiating structure (ohio state)
directive leadership style
____ empolyee ceneter (michighan) or consideration (ohio st)
supportive leadership
____ challenging goals; high expectations that they acheived
achievement oriented
____ empolyees give their opinions about what should be done
participative style
_____ situation uses directive leadership style
stressful environment
___situaiton uses supportive leadership style
new employees who dont know what htey are doing
____ situationn uses acheivement oriented style
professionals who are mature
____ situation uses participative style
difficult decision to make and need employee's commitment
1. situation factor
2. tell, sell, participate and delegate
HErsey and blanchard (life cycle theory)
_____ employee readiness or employee maturity
situational factor
What are the 2 contemporary leadership theories?
1. transformational vs transactional leaderships
2. Leader member exchange( LMX) by george graen
______ are real leaders ; major change, vision, intellecutally stimulating, charismatic, individualized consideration
transformational leaders
____ are merely managers; manage by exception and manage by exchange
transcactional leaders
true or false : both transofmration and transactional leaders are needed
supervisors assign certain people to their ingroup and others to their out group; ______ gets special attention and assignemtns (get more and more promotions) ; ____ get treated in a contractual way
in- group

out group
In communication ____ is clarifying or verifying a message
im sorry is used by ___
positive feedback is used by __
indirect when giving instructions ___
act confident even when they dont know ____
___ ask questions
Whoa re the best communivators?
Who are more likely to get promoted ?
_____ in communication there is a need to do both
gender flex
best communicators in interpersonal relationships are ____
true or false: sender --> encodes message --> sends on channel --> decoded by receiver --> (feedback[clarify - nodding of head])--> back to sender
___ richeness of information (how much information gets passed
data, memo, personal letters, thelephoen( voice tone), and face to face are _____ channels
choose what channel is appropriate in the situation will provide ____ channel
____ is the least channel

___ is the most channel

face to face (see expressions and emotions)
Over ____ % of what we communicate is nonverbal
_____ are 50% of our non verables and have universal meaning
facial expressions
____ is 38% of our non verbals
voice tone
What are means of non verbal communication?
1. facial expressions
2. voice tone
3. eye contact
4. body language
5. gestures
6. touch
7. distance
0-18" is intimate space
18" - 4 ' - personal space for friends and family
4' - 8 ' is social space
8-12' or more is public space
distance as nonverbal communication
____ :
improve communication by increasing the arena
learning about blindspots
johari window
Should we keep our facade?
it is more important to get rid of blond spots in the work place than facade; both of these will increase the arena
To get rid of the blind spot ask for ____
to get rid of the facade _____
self disclose
What are the 2 types of organizational communication?
1. formal communication (vertical communication)
2. grapevine (informal communication )
_____ is down the chain-borinng; perforamce feedback; indoctrination and slow
pass up - summerize and without ( not very good communication)
formal communication (vertical communication)
____ is interesting and very fast; 75% accurate; better communication
grapevine; the further you move up in the organization the less you will be in the grapevine
What are the 2 types of control in Controlling Function?
1. constant controls
2. periodic controls
_____ is the most important constant control
employee self control
employee self control, group norms and organizaitonal culture are ______
constant controls
auditing function, managment informaiton systems, and budegets are ______
periodic controls
gantt chart (bar chart) and pert diagram (flow chart) are _____
project controls
____ getting after the fact
____ getting information so that avoid probems (before)
Which approach do managers prefer ? feed back or feed forward?