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197 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 ineffective reactions to decision making?
relaxed avoidance
relaxed change
defensive avoidance
_____ theres no point in doing anything; nothing bad is going to happen

in this situation the manager decides to take no action in a belief that there will be no great negative consequence

a form of complacency

ex: sept 11 - poor security
relaxed avoidance
_____ why not just take the easiest way out?

a manageer realizes that complete inaction will have negative consequences, but opts for the first available alternative that involves low risk ; this is a form of satisficing; the manager avoids exploring a variety of alternative sin order to make the best decisions
relaxed change - ex: people dont like alot of choices
_____ theres no reason for me to explore other solution alternatives; a manager cant find a good solution and follows by procrastinating, passing the buck, or denying the risk of any negative consequences ; this is a posture of resignation and denial of responsibility for taking action, this manager is rationalizing
defensive avoidance : ex: high turnover rate in the workplace
_____ this is so stressful, ive got to do something, anything, to get red of the problem! a manager is so frantic to get rid of the problem that he or she cant deal with the situation realiztically ; the manager has completely forgotten the idea of behaving with grace under pressure
panic ; ex: just fire all the employees!
______ managers must report and justify work results to the managers above them; responsibility for performing assigned tasks
_____ refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to make decisions, give orders, and utilize resources
______ is the obligation you have to perform the tasks assigned to you ; with more authority comes more _____
______ is the process of assigning managerial authority and responsibility to managers and employees lower in the hierarchy ; to be more efficient most managers are expected to ____ as much of their work as possible
What are the 6 Common Decision making biases?

Always call rebecca so cats are allowed elephant cars
availability bias
confirmation bias
respresentative bias
sunk cost bias
anchoring and adjustment bias
escalation of commitment bias
______ managers use more information readily availbale from memeroy to make judgements

readily availible information may not present a complete picture of a situaiton
ex: on time for 9 months then late 4 days in a row
availability bias
_____ is when people seek information to support their point of view and discount data that do not
this is very common
confirmation bias
____ is the tendency to generalize from a small sample or a single event ;

just because something happens once doesnt mean it is represenative that it will happen again or will happen to you

ex: assuming all great workers come out of Harvard
representativeness bias
____ is when managers add up all the money already spent on a project and conclude it is too costly to simply abandon it
suck cost bias
______ is the tendency to make decisions based on an initial figure

the initial figure may be irrelevant to market realities

eX: pricing a house at $500,000 before the market crash that is now worth $100,000 and refusing to lower the price
anchoring and adjustment bias
______ is decision makers increase their commitment to a project despite negative informaitno about it

what was originially made as pershaps rational decision may continue to be supported for irrantional reasons - pride, ego, the spending of enormous sums of money, and being "loss averse"

ex: iraq war
escalation of commitment bias
What are the 4 ways visable culture is transmitted?
1. clan culture
2. Adhocracy culture
3. market culture
4. hierarchy culture
_____ is "an employee focused culture valuing flexibility, not stability" has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control

like a family type orgnaizaiton it encourages collabortion among empolyees striving to encourage cohesion through consensus and job satisfactino and to increase commitment through employee incolvement

they view customers as partners
clan culture

ex: encouraging managers to spend off work hours with employees
_____ is "risk taking culture valuing flexibility" has an external focus and values flexibility.

attempts to create innovated products by being adaptable, creative and quick to respond to changes in the market place ; encourages employees to take risk and experiment with ideas
Adnocracy culture

suitable for start up companies
ex: google urges engineers to spend time on own personal projects
_____ is " a competitive culture valuing profits over empolyee satisfaction" has a strong external focus and values stability and control ; empoloyees are expected to work hard, react fast, and deliver quaility work on time
market culture

eX: kia motors firing executives that do not meet their sales goals
_____ is "a structured culture valuing stability and effectiveness" has an internal focus and values stability and control over flexibility ; companies have a formalized, structured work environment aimed at achieving effectiveness through a variety of control mechanisms that measure efficiency, timeliness and reliability in the creaction and delivery of products
Hierarchy Culture
ex: UPS
What are the 3 cultures enhancing economic performance?

Sally Feels Angry
1. strength perspective
2. fit perspecitve
3. adapitive perspective
_____ " success results when a firm has a strong culture: ; assumes that the strength of a corporate culture is related to a firms long term financial performance ; strong cultures create goal alignment, empolyee motivation, and the appropriate structure and controls needed to improve orgnaizational performace
strength perspective

ex: american automakers resisting the need to make adjustments
_________ is such financial success can so reinforce cultural norms that managers and employees become arrogant, inwardly focused, and reisstant to change with top managers becoming blinded to the need for new strategic plans
downside to strength perspecitve
______ is "success results when culture fits with the firms buisness contect" assumes that an organization's culture must align or fit with its buisness or strategic context. ; a correct fit is expected to foster higher financial performance
fit perspecitve

ex: pushing authority as far down as possible in the organization and creating an environment that emphasized integrity, respect for individuals, teamwork, innovation, and an emphasis on customer and community = success
_____ " success results when culture helps the firm adapt" assumes that the most effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adpt to environmental changes
adaptive perspective
What are the 4 stages in the organization's life cycle?
1. the birth stage
2. the youth stage
3. the midlife stage
4. the maturity stage
____ is the nonbureaucratic stage, the stage in which the organization is created; no written rules, little staff, maybe a secretary
the birth-stage
______ is the organization is in a prebureaucratic stage , a stage of growth and expansions; product in the market place, people being added to payroll and some division of labor and setting of rules
the youth stage
_____ is the organization becoming bureaucratic a period of growth evolving into stability ; structure, staffs of specialists, many rules, and decentralization of functional divisions
the midlife stage
____ is the organization becomes very bureaucratic, large and mechanistic ; may have lack of flexibility and innovation
the maturity stage
_____ is to determine by observation and analysis the basic elements of a job ; interview job occupants about what they do, observe the flow of work and learn how results are accomplished
job analysis
_____ summerizes what the holder of the job does and how and why he or she does it
job description
_____ describes the minimum qualifications a person must have to perform the job successfully
job specification
_____ refers to educating technical and operational employees in how to better do their current jobs; upgrading skills of techinical and operational employees
______ refers to educaiting professionals and managers in the skills they need to do their jobs in the future ; upgrading skills of professionals and managers
_______ is a choice made from among available alternatives
____ is the process of identifying and choosing alternative courses of action
decision making
What are the 6 means of complexity under challenges of decision making?

1. stakeholders who have different perspecitves
2. interdiscilinary input
3. values
4. long term implications
5. intangibles
6. risk
What are the 3 conditions under which to make deicions?
1. risk
2. uncertainty
3. certainty
_____ is the most common coniditon to make a decision ; ther eare many alternatives and probabilty of outcomes ; ex: researching the idea; betting on researched idea
risk - condition under which make decision
_______ : dont alternatives of their outcomes; it is more frequent than people realize; intuition is very important , making the best guess
uncertainty - condition under which make decision
_____ is making a choice without the use of conscious thought or logical interference
____ is all alternatives and outcomes ; this is not very frequent ; ex: knowing the race is fixed and betting on that horse
certainty - condition under which make decision
What are the 2 areas of simon's decision making model?

E and A
1. economic man
2. administrative man
____ makes optimal decisions- looks at all alternatives and picks the best one; very uncommon in organizations
economic man
_____ is how it really works ; consists of bounded rationaility and saticifice
administrative man
_____ is a complex environment, limited time, limited emotional energy , limited intelligence; the concept suggests that the ability of decision makers to be rational is limited by numerous constraints
bounded rationaility
___ make decisions that are good enough; make a decision that is equally or better than the last; managers seek alternatives until they find one that is satisfactory, not optimal
saticifice - of administrative man
What are the two parts to Jun's cognitive styles?

P and J
1. perceive the world
2. judging the facts or intuition
What falls under Jung's perceive the world cogivitve style?
Facts (s) = sensation
Possibilties (n) = intution
What falls under judging the facts or intuition in Jung's cognitive styles ?
Think (T)= about what is perceived
Feel (F) = what is perceived
these careers follow what cognitive styles, accountants, engineer; they look at information (facts) and think about it (T)
these careers follow what cognitive styles: artist, musician; inutiton and feeligns
this career follows what cognitive styles: researcher - makes hypothesis and collects data; inutiontion and thought
this career follows what cognitive style: counselor- collects facts and feelings
_____ is 1) perceive (P) and judge (J) 2) introvert (I) or extrovert (E); based on arousal
SN or TF or PJ or IE all _______
______ is a technique used to help groups generate multiple ideas and alternatives for solving problems

6-8 people, number of ideas, wilder the better,link ideas. "never critize an idea!"
______ decreases interaction; 7-10 people , individual writes down ideas for solving this problem; moderator will write these down and clarify what you means ; individually rank, order of ideas (1=highest)
nominal group technique
_____ is a group process that uses physcially dispersed experts who fill out questionnaires to anaymously generate ideas; the judgements are combined and in effect averaged to achieve a consenseus of expert opinion

experts who are geographically seperated ; round-robin approach until general concensus
Delphi Technique (forecasting ) predicting
_______ = organizations; strong vs weak
strong situations
_____ is when the environment dictates how we act
strong situation
_____ is when personaility dictates how we act
weak situation
______ was an experimenter in a white coat , actor (learner) hooked up to electricity and naive subject told to train the learner by shocking ; 65% gain the the maximum shock
Milgram experiments (yale 1960)
Do you compromise your ethical values for the organization?
the higher up in the organization, the least likely you are to have to compromise your ethical values

20 % of top managers
32% of middle managers
41% of first line supervisors
According to Rokeach what are the 2 types of values?

I and T
1. instrumental values
2. terminal values
_____: managers are really not that moral
What are the different forms of morality in managers? (8)

Izzy is-always using-a means of defensive acting personalities
immoral, intentionally amoral, unintentionally amoral, moral; obstructionists, defensive, accomodating, proactive
_____ follow the letter of the law
intentionally amoral
_____ are morally lazy (ex: do not think about it : interviewing and hiring someone like me )
unintentionally amoral
____ is Conformance to a recognized code, doctrine, or system of rules of what is right or wrong and to behave accordingly
______A style devoid of ethical principles and active opposition to what is ethical.
________ have negative ends (ex: BP in oil spill, more concerned with money)
obstructionist and defensive
_____ are morally lazy (ex: McDonalds hamdburger wrapping not eco friendly)
____ are ahead of the game morally (ex: american express)
What is the morality of most managers?
What are the 4 areas needed to be a moral organization?
1. role model of ethical behavior
2. code of ethics
3. choose public good over organizational good
4. need formal communication channel (to report wrong doing) ; avoid whistle blowing= reporting wrong doing to outside agency or media
What are the 5 functions of management?
1. planning
2. organizing
3. staffing
4. leading
5. controlling
What are the concepts associated with organizing ? (3)

1. line vs staff positions
2. centralization vs decentralization
3. span of control
____ = line authority
_____= personal or advisory staff
_____ is where decisions are made by top management
____ is where decisions are pushed down to the lowest level ; most organizations want to be _____ because of more flexibility
_____ is the number of direct reporters to supervisors ; in general the more you supervise the better
span of control
What situational characteristics would allow you to supervise the most people?
managers at a factory because they do similar work, do simple work, and are all in one place( depends on the situaiton)
in ______ there are more people to go through; top managemnet isnt included
tall organizations

CEo - mmmmmmmmm- 3 F for each M
____ is better than narrow organizations

CEO --> 3 T --> 3 M / T --> 3 F/ M
What do the contingency designs consist of?
OT: organization theory: macro, general organizaiton designs

OD: therpist's for organizations
OB: orgniazations Behavior
Burns and Stalker (1960) design is based on _________
environmental turbulence
______ are mechanistic organization (bureaucrative organization)

centralized organization; rigid roles; vertical communication
stable and certain

____ are orgnaic organizations (fluid)

decentralized decision making; flexible roles; horizontal communication; collaborative network
unstable and uncertian
Woodward (1965) - _____ influences design (how we make products)
under woodward

______ is organic; flat orgnaization; horizontal communication
unit production
_____ is flat orgnaization; policies, procedures and rules
mass production( factory)
______ are chemical plants ; oil refineries = tall organizations
coninuous production (24-hr)
lawrence and lorsch are responsible for _______
environmental complexity
L&L environmental complexity

consists of what 3 things?

1. differentitation
2. integration
3. increased environmental complexity
_____ is the number of different specialist you need, understand your environment

_____ how much specialists have to talk to each other

ex: pharmecutical companies

______ is increased specialisted differentiation + increased integration
increased environmental complexity
What are the 6 components of departmentalization?

Sally Feels Prettier Than Carrie Martin
1. simple department
2. functional department
3. product departmentalizaiton
4. territorial department
5. customer
6. matrix department
_____ is all employees report to the boss
simple department
_____ divided occupational groups- marketing . finiance, production (old approach) --> all sepearte , no interaciton, no focus on the customer
functional department
______ is (profit centers) focus on the customer; most common all departments togheter working to make customers happy
product dempartmentalization
____ is dividing up by terms of region in sales department
territorial (regional , geographical) department
______ hostpial = pediatrics and geriatrics ; electric company - residential and commerical

focus on a partciular group of people
_____ is 2 bosses for 1 employee (violated the "unity of command" which suggests you should do 1 boss for an employee) ; complex products and services
good communication but alot of complicaitons
matrix department
what are the 2 bosses under the matrix department?
1. quality specialist
2. manager in charge of product (administrative)
______ (1911) - mass production (simple jobs) Taylor ; increased efficiency

this was a problem for employees because it was boring and more money
job speicalization
_____ came from horizontal loading : 2 simple jobs

problem for employees were simple job after simple job was boring
job enlargement
_____ move from one ismple job to another problem for employee and managers : employees were bored and mangers start up time losing efficiency while they are learning new job ; rotate every 6 hours
job rotation
_____ is the biological pproach to job design ( job doesnt exceed the physical capacity of the employee_
____: in the office - worry about features : ex: carple tunnel

ex: redesigning tools to fit the person
______ responsible for getting the job done; measure how well the team did; measure the individual's contribution to the team
team approach
______ (vertical loaded (decreased)) giving job depth so that it is intrinsically motivating - job characteristics model with 5 core characteristics
job enrichment
What are the 5 core characteristics?
ts ti sv a f
1. task significance
2. task identify
3. skill variety lead to "experience of meaningfulness"
4. autonomy leads " feelings of responsibilty"
5. feedback leads "knowledge of results"
_______ is satisfaction leads ot experience of meaningfulness.feelings of responsibility, and knowledge of results
outcomes of the 5 core characteristics
________ the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, involving the use of a number of different skills and talents of the person ; what the unique worker is good at
skill variety
_________ the degree to which a job requires completion of a "whole" and identifiable piece of work, that is doing a job from the beginning to end ; shoe makers, writing a whole book
task identity
_____ the degree to which the job has a substantial impact of the lives of other people, whether those poeple ar ein immediate organization or in the world at large ; pediatric physician
task significance
_____ is the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to the individual and in scheduling the work and in determing the procedures to be used in carrying it out ; doing what you think is right --> your own way of doing things --> choice
_______ the degree to which carrying out the work activites required by the job provides the individual with the direct and clear informaiton about the effectiveness ofhis or her performance ; getting informaiton /opinons from others
feedback from
What is the most important job design?
job enrichment (vertical loading (decreased) ) giving job depth so that it is intrinsically motivating - 5 core characteristics
Skill variety, task variety, and task significance lead to what psychological state and what work outcomes?
Experienced meaningfulness of job
Autonomy leads to what psychological state and what work outcomes?
experienced responsibility for work outcomes --> increased satisfaction, retention , and quality
feedback leads to what psychological state and what work outcomes?
knowledge of actual results of work
______ is applicant pool with qualified individuals ; two kinds: internally and externally
_____ is posting jobs electronically ; involves recommendations from the employees ; problems: recommending friends that are like that employee , "like me"
internally recruiting
_____ is a poster or newspaper, looking at different populations
externally recruiting
Civil rights act of 1964 : the foundation law cannot descriminate because of ____, ____, ____, _____, and _____

sexual harrasment is also covered under this act ( sexual favor and hostile environment)
race, color, creed, religion , gender

counrtry of origin, ethnicity, race, gender, religion
_______________ cannot discriminate with individuals over the age of 40
age discrimination act of 1967
_______ cannot discriminate agianst physical and mental abilities ; must have "reasonable accomodation "; under this law you must offer the job then you can test for drugs and alcohol
americans with disablities act
what does BFOQ stand for?
bona fide occupational qualifications
_________ less precise definition is that employers can discriminate because of "business necessity"

ex: chinese resturants only hiring chinese servers
_____ is making up for past discrimination ; actively recruiting and training a minority ;
Affirmative action
for violated EEO laws, federal judge may order ________; have an affirmative action plan if you receive federal grants; voluntary (proactive)
affirmative action
What is the danger with voluntary affirmative action?
discrimination (reverse discrimination)
________ is not discriminating in your HR practices ; federal government does not protect businesses with less than 15 employees ; legal vs illegal.
Equal employment opportunities (EEO)
under EEO _____ is specific job, actinv job etc.
under EEO- _____ is no equal employment for women (ex: oil field)
_________was the first law in the US that deals with Unions; cannot fire someone for engaging in union activity. lead to decrease in union activity in the US , cannot interfeere with union activity

ex: giving raises because of threat of union activity
NLRA- National Labor Relations Act 1935
under the NLRA who is the first to call and who is the second?
1. company lawyer
2. "union buster"
selection "tests" are also known as _____
screening devices
___________ means consistent scores from one test to the next
____ does the "test" measure what is says (or claims(purposes)) to measure
_____ are not reliable because they are based on moods/feelings which can change
personality tests
what test is not valid because its voodoo
handwriting analysis
which test is legal (reliable and valid) ; this could depend on the setting and different layers of tests ; checking social websites ; ie facebook
background check/ credit check
_____ used by 100% of organizations could not always be reliable , unstructured and structured
_____ is goingn with the flow, its the weakest form. not very reliable
unstructured interview
_____ decide on questions before hand; ask each applicant the same questions; more reliable, but could be considered invalid(more valid then unstructured interview)
structure interview
for _____ it depends; typically not very valid
for _____ it is invalid in some cases
skill tests
_____ could be invalid
____________ is a way to see if someone can read and write ; 15% of applicants are illiterate
application bank
What is the best predictor of performance?
IQ: people who are smarter learn faster and in more depth
What is the problem with IQ measurement?
its a culture bias
_______ is an ongoing systempatic evaluation of employees
perforamnce appriasal
________ compares one person to another ; not a good approach consists of ranking and force distribution
______ assign a certain percentage of employees to categories ; usually once someone gets a certain letter,everyone just assumes they are always that letters; based on the idea that your employees fit in the bell curve)
problem: competition is very negative
what is this an example of?

if you give a superstar a B letter, it will likely bruise their ego and that person will probably work less or find another job
______ person compared against standard ; graphic rating scale, BARS ;
Standard based approach
____ is the most popular; description with anchors ; deminsions (team work , quality of work ,etc. ) and ranked in each category ; problems: its a matter of perceoption (varies with the managers level of strictness) and they usualy measure personality /attitue
graphic rating scale
____________ is the best one, 10-12 deminsions of a job , each dimensions is described in behavioral terms ; good approach because measuring behaviors, not personality and supervisors can be consistent on how they measure
BARS - Behaviorally anchored rating scales
______ is assigning goals to your employees ; powerful motivator , hard to decide who gets the raise ; do not use by itself because it will give harder goals to good employees and lower ones to lower employees
MBO - management by objectives
in _________________________ supervisors hate the interview and employees have inherent conflicts
performance appraisal interview
supervisors hate the interview because of __________ - judging and developing role ; judging on last years performance, try to motivate for future
inherent conflict
are you below average on performance? ____ said they were below average
employees have _______:
1. want to merit raises associated with appraisal
2. claim they want honest feedback, but it could hurt relationship
inherent conflicts
leniency error/bias (over-rate) most common vs strictness bias , ______ over rate employees
________ is 1 dimension influences all other dimensions

ex: having a good looking employee = believe they are smart , good social skills, etc. this is an example of ______

ex: always late = people assume she is lazy etc. This is an example of a ______
horn or halo error/bias


_______ remember only the last several weeks :evaluated on the last few months
recency error
When it comes to recency errors what should managers do?
do evaluations every quarter, taking notes on employees throughout the year
when it comes to recency errors how to employees act?
work harder the last couple of months
Merit raises (4%) vs COLAS:

1 . ____
2. _____
3. _____
1. fair labor standards act 1938 - formed a minimum wage requirement
2. equal pay act 1963 - required that women receive equal pay for equal work
3. Job analysis questionarrie , job descriptions
after 40 hours,. you get paid time and a half ; excluding salary employees and specialists
fair labor standards act 1938
men and women doing similar work should receive similar pay
equal pay act 1963
_______ analysis how much job is worth
job analysis
______ summary of duties
job description
_____ what you need to do the job
job specification
What does COLA stand for ? ex: federal goverment : ajust salaries based on changese in cost of living
Cost of living adjustments
What do you fire on the spot for?
substance abuse at work, stealing, fighting, industry specific occerance ( ex: doctor disobeyed patient confidentiality or having relations with a patient )
What are the 4 steps of progressive discipline?

Only white watermelllons sweeten fast
1. oral warning
2. written warning
3. suspension with or without pay
4. fire them (termination)
_________ is an employement at will state. Fire someone just cause, no cause or immoral cause.

but fire only for just cause : good and sufficient reason
Concept or Doctrine of Employment at Will
_______ alcohoolo or emotional problems (but it does not excuse the employee from performing ) behavior must improve or termination
EAPS employee assistance programs
What are 2 views of conflict?
traiditonal view and modern view
____________ people are good. If they are not loving each other , it is because of poor communication or lack of trust.

ex: OB people : organizations behavior people
tradiational views
_____ conflict is inevitable; only so much power in orgnaisation , self- interest; different values ; functional and dysfunctional
modern view
___________ is moderate levels of conflict ; ex: argue about ideas
functional conflict
____________ is where there is no conflict or severe conflict ; ex: boredum , lack of challenge, or dislike for fellow employees
dysfunctional conflict
Avoiding, competitng/dominating/forcing , accommodating / obliging/ smoothingm, collaborating/integrating/pproblem solving ; compromising/negotiating are all forms of ________ (concern for others vs concern for self)
conflict styles
________ do not get involved , aovid conflict (low concern for self, low concern for others) should use sometimes
_____ is a high concern for self, low concern for others; move against people (fire people) ; need to act really fast; you know what is going on and the other employees do not
competing / dominating/ forcing
_____ is a high concern for others, low concern for self ; important inrelationships; liked, but not respected; seen as weak, push over
accommodating/ obliging / soothing
______ has one best way, has high concern for self AND others, must have time to do this ,not always appropriate
collaborating / integrating /problem solving
______ equal power
compromising / negotiating
Review concern for self(left side) concernm for others (bottom) square
Forcing (H,L)
Integration *( H,H)
Avoiding (L,L)
Accomodating( L, H)