Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/48

Click to flip

48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

What is metallic bonding?

Metallic bonding is the strong attraction between closely packed positive metal ions and a ‘sea’ of delocalised electrons

Why can metals conduct?

Metals can conduct as the delocalised electrons has the ability to move around.

What do transition metals act as?

Transition metals act as catalysts by speeding up a reaction but without being used up themselves.

What is an alloy?

An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements, one of which is a metal. Alloys have different physical properties in comparison to the pure elements.

Which metals can neutralise acid and what do they produce?

Reactive Metals above hydrogen in the electrochemical series can neutralise acids. They produce a salt and hydrogen gas.



Metal + acid ➡️ salt +hydrogen

What happens when metals reacts with oxygen?

When metals reacts with oxygen it forms a metal oxide and gives out heat or light form of energy.



Metal + oxygen ➡️ metal oxide z

Which metals have to be extracted from their ores by electrolysis?

•lithium •potassium •calcium •sodium •magnesium •aluminium


Metals above aluminium on the electrochemical series need electrolysis to be extracted from their ores.

Which metals have to be extracted from their ores using heat and carbon?

•zinc •iron •tin •lead •copper


Metals that are between copper and zinc need heat and carbon to be extracted from their ores

Which metals have to be extracted from their ores using heat alone?

•Mercury •silver •gold


Metals below copper in the electrochemical series only requires heat alone to be extracted from their ores.

What happens when a metal reacts?

Whenever a metal reacts, it transfers its outer electrons to what it is reacting with, forming a positive ion.


The other reactant gains these electrons and form a negative charged ion.

What is formed at the negative electrode?

At the negative electrode, positively charged ions gain electrons- reduction


•the metal will be produced if it is less reactive than hydrogen


hydrogen will be produced if the metal is more reactive than hydrogen.

What is formed at the positive electrode?

At the positive electrode, negatively charged ions lose electrons- oxidation


E.g ionic solution - copper chloride


Chlorine is formed at the positive electrode

What are ores?

Ores are naturally occurring metal compounds

Which metals can be extracted from their ore (metal oxide) by heat alone and what is the equation?

Metals that can be extracted from their ore alone are


silver •Mercury •Gold



Metal oxide➡️ metal + oxygen

Which metals can be extracted from their ores by heat and carbon ?

copper •lead •tin •iron •zinc


Nickel


These are present in ores as their oxides


The metal oxide loses oxygen, therefore being reduced


The carbon gains oxygen therefore being oxidised


E.g


Iron oxide + carbon ➡️ iron + carbon dioxide

What is electrolysis?

Electrolysis is the breakdown of a molten or aqueous ionic compound into its elements using electricity

What is reduction?

Reduction is the gain of electrons.


The positive metal ion is attracted to the negative electrode where they gains enough electrons to turn back into the metal atom.


OILRIG

What is oxidation?

Oxidation is the loss of electrons by a reactant.


The non-metal ion is attracted to the positive electrode where it loses electrons to form the element.


OILRIG.

What is electricity?

Electricity is a flow of electrons.

What does a basic electrochemical cell require?

A basic electrochemical cell requires two different metals connected by an external circuit and between the metals there needs to be an electrolyte.

What is an electrolyte and what is it’s role?

An electrolyte is an ionic solution or paste.


the job of an electrolyte is to complete the circuit.

How do electrons flow?

Electrons flow from the more reactive to the less reactive metal through the wires.

What is the electrochemical series?

The electrochemical series is metals placed in order of their ability to donate electrons.

What happens if further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series?

The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series, the greater the voltage produced.

What is electrolysis?

Electrolysis is the breakdown of a molten or aqueous ionic compound into its elements using electricity

What is are redox reactions?

redox reactions are reactions where both oxidation and reduction are taking place.

What is a displacement reaction?

A displacement reaction is when a metal ion is displaced from solution by a metal higher up in the electrochemical series.

What is corrosion?

Corrosion is when metals react with oxygen in the atmosphere causing a layer of metal oxide to form on the surface.

What is rust?

Rust is a very brittle coating formed by iron. This cause iron to weaken and fall away.


Rusting is a Redox reaction, the iron is being oxidised and the water and oxygen are being reduced.

What do rust requires?

Rust requires iron, oxygen and water.

What can Ferroxyl indicator solution help to show?

Ferroxyl indicator solution can help show the first stages of rusting.

What ions are present when Ferroxyl indicator changes from yellow to blue?

Ferroxyl indicator changes from yellow to blue when iron(II) ions are present.

What ions are present when Ferroxyl indicator changes from yellow to pink?

Ferroxyl indicator changes from yellow to pink when hydroxide ions are present.

What happens when iron rusts in Ferroxyl indicator?

When iron rusts in Ferroxyl indicator, the dark blue colour caused by the iron(II) ions masks the pink colour caused by the hydroxide ions.

What is reduction?

Reduction is the gain of electrons.


The positive metal ion is attracted to the negative electrode where they gains enough electrons to turn back into the metal atom.


OILRIG

What is oxidation?

Oxidation is the loss of electrons by a reactant.


The non-metal ion is attracted to the positive electrode where it loses electrons to form the element.


OILRIG.

What is electricity?

Electricity is a flow of electrons.

What does a basic electrochemical cell require?

A basic electrochemical cell requires two different metals connected by an external circuit and between the metals there needs to be an electrolyte.

What is an electrolyte and what is it’s role?

An electrolyte is an ionic solution or paste.


the job of an electrolyte is to complete the circuit.

How do electrons flow?

Electrons flow from the more reactive to the less reactive metal through the wires.

What is the electrochemical series?

The electrochemical series is metals placed in order of their ability to donate electrons.

What happens if further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series?

The further apart the metals are in the electrochemical series, the greater the voltage produced.

What does the salt bridge between two beakers do?

The salt bridge between the two beakers complete the circuit by allowing the ions to flow between the two halves of the cell.

What will increasing the concentration of the electrolyte do?

Increasing the concentration of the electrolyte will speed up the corrosion.

Give examples of Barriers to prevent rusting

•paint •grease •plastic •metal plating


With unreactive metals such as tin or silver

5 things

What is sacrificial protection ?

Sacrificial protection are when metals higher up in the electrochemical series than iron donate electrons to the iron, preventing rusting occurring.

What is galvanising?

Galvanising is when the iron is coated in a layer of zinc, which acts as a barrier against air and water.


If zinc layer is damaged, it can act as a sacrificial protector- donating electrons to prevent the iron rusting.

What is cathodic protection?

Catholic protection is when an iron object is attached to the negative terminal of a battery or electrical supply to prevent rusting.


The flow of electrons will cause any iron(II) ions to be reduced back to iron atoms.