Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When a cell needs energy, it utilizes as an immediate energy source a molecule called _______.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
NAD and FAD are organic substances that work with enzymes and are known as ____________.
The cytochromes and coenzymes work together to transfer electrons in a system known as the ________.
electron transport system
ATP production occurs during a process in which protons move across membranes in a cellular structure called the _________.
The central carbohydrate available to the body for energy is __________.
During the process of cellular respiration, one of the products given off as a waste product is the gas ______.
carbon dioxide
Also during cellular respiration, the gas that is used as the acceptor of electrons is _______.
During the process of glycolysis, glucose is broken down to form two molecules of _________.
pyruvic acid
In order to energize the reactions of glycolysis, energy must be supplied from the molecule ______.
Because the process of glycolysis does not involve oxygen, the process is considered to be ________.
The net gain of ATP molecules resulting from glycolysis is _______.
In active muscle cells not supplied with enough oxygen, the pyruvic acid resulting from glycolysis may be converted to ________.
lactic acid
The enzymes required for the Krebs cycle reactions and electron transport are located in the mitochondrion along folds of membranes known as ____________.
The electron transport system occurs on folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane called __________.
An important 6-carbon acid formed during the early stages of the Krebs cycle is _______.
citric acid
During the reactions of the Krebs cycle, a number of reactions result in the conversion of NAD to _______.
Each of the carbon atoms entering the Krebs cycle results in the formation of a molecule of ________.
carbon dioxide
The last chemical compound formed in the Krebs cycle results in the formation of a molecule of ________.
oxaloacetic acid
After an oxygen atom takes up electrons during the electron transport system, it acquires two protons and forms a molecule of ________.
The energy liberated from electron transport is used to pump protons through the mitochondrial membranes in the process of _________.
The total number of ATP molecules produced through all the reactions of cellular respiration is _________.
When excess glucose is available in the body, it may be stored in the liver as the carbohydrate ____________.
When the level of glucose is low in the blood, the body breaks down glycogen and releases the glucose in a process called ________.
A small amount of cholesterol from the diet is carried in the bloodstream in lipoproteins known as ________.
very low density lipoproteins
A high incidence of coronary heart disease is associated with lipoproteins that have almost 50 percent cholesterol and are known as ________.
low density lipoproteins
In the breakdown of fats for energy metabolism, fatty acids are converted into two carbon units of _______.
Also in fat metabolism, the glycerol part of the fat can be utilized for energy after it has been converted to _______.
The processes of fat catabolism result in condensation of acetyl-CoA molecules to yield acetoacetic acid, which is then converted to molecules called ________.
ketone bodies
Among the unsaturated fatty acids that cannot be synthesized by the body are linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and ________.
arachidonic acid
When the diet contains a large amount of carbohydrate, the glucose is converted to fats in the process of ______.
In the process of deamination, amino acids are converted into compounds that can be used to supply ________.
An important product of the metabolism of amino acids is a waste product expelled by the kidneys and known as __________.
The essential amino acids are those that must be obtained from the __________.
The protein that contains all the essential amino acids is known as ________.
complete protein
The body utilizes carbohydrates as a major energy source and uses amino acids for protein synthesis and stores fat as adipose tissue during the metabolic state known as the _________.
absorptive state
The body tissues depend primarily on fat for energy, and glycogen is used for energy during the state known as the __________.
postabsorptive state
The mineral required for blood clotting and normal muscle and nerve activity as well as for bone and tooth formation is _____________.
The mineral used as a component of hemoglobin molecules and in the cytochromes of electron transport is _____________.
The most abundant positively charged ion in the extracellular fluid and the mineral used in maintaining water balance in the body and used in nerve impuse conduction is _______.
The disease beriberi results from a deficiency of a vitamin known as vitamin B1 or _________.
The vitamin used in the synthesis of FAD is vitamin B2, also known as ________.
A deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to a blood disorder known as ___________.
pernicious anemia
The vitamin that promotes protein metabolism and the deposit of collagen during the formation of connective tissue is ascorbic acid, also called ________.
vitamin C
The fat-soluble vitamin D promotes the absorption of phosphorus and calcium from the _______.
gastrointestinal tract
The energy expenditure of the body per unit of time under basal conditions is the _______.
basal metabolic rate
After a meal has been ingested, the metabolism increases in a phenomenon called _______.
specific dynamic action
Heat is lost from the body during sweating and through exhalation in the process of ___________.
The regulation of temperature in the body is related to the activity in the thermoregulatory center of a brain structure called the _________.
Air and water molecules receive heat from the body through conduction and move away to be replaced by other molecules in the process of _________.
Those substances that increase the body's thermostat and bring about fever are called ___________.