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24 Cards in this Set

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What is surfactant? What type of cells produce surfactant?
"Mixture of phospholipids, primarily dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC).

Pulmonary surfactant greatly reduces surface tension within the alveoli, preventing their collapse.

It is produced by Type II Alveolar cells.

"
What is the Total Lung Capacity (TLC)?
Total lung capacity: The volume in the lungs at maximal inflation
What is Tidal Volume (TV)?
Tidal Volume: Volume of air moved into or out of the lungs during quiet breathing.
What is Residual Volume (RV)?
Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximal exhalation.
What is expiratory reserve volume?
Expiratory reserve volume: The maximal volume of air that can be exhaled from the end-expiratory position.
What is Inspiratory Reserve Volume?
Inspiratory reserve volume: The maximal volume that can be inhaled from the end-inspiratory level.
What is Inspiratory Capacity (IC)?
Inspiratory capacity: the sum of Inspiratory Reserve Volume and Tidal Volume
What is Inspiratory Vital Capacity?
Inspiratory Vital Capacity: The maximum volume of air inhaled from the point of maximum expiration
What is Vital Capacity?
Vital Capacity: The volume equal to Total Lung Capacity minus Residual Volume
What is Functional residual capacity?
Functional residual capacity: the volume in the lungs at the end-expiratory position.
What is Forced Vital Capacity?
Forced Vital Capacity: The determination of the vital capacity from a maximally forced expiratory effort.
What is FEV1?
"FEV1: Volume that has been exhaled at the end of the first second of forced expiration. 

Normal: 75-85% of FVC"
Prior to Kanye West's "My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy", what was the most recent new release album to garner a rating of 10.0 from Pitchfork?
Wilco - Yankee Hotel Foxtrot
Wilco - Yankee Hotel Foxtrot
What test/device can be used to measure how fast, and how much air, you breath out?
Spirometry
How does airflow change in obstructive lung disease?
" In obstructive lung disease however, FEV1 is reduced while FVC remains stable, consequentially depicting a lower FEV1/FVC ratio

FEV1 <80% Miid                 
         <65% moderate
          <50% severe

 * I think ...
" In obstructive lung disease however, FEV1 is reduced while FVC remains stable, consequentially depicting a lower FEV1/FVC ratio

FEV1 <80% Miid                 
         <65% moderate
          <50% severe

 * I think above should be the ratio, but it just says FEV1 in lecture slide 

Airflow Limitation
Normal or increased compliance

"
How does airflow change in restrictive lung disease?
"In restrictive lung disease, both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) are reduced, however, the decline in FVC is more than that of FEV1, resulting in a higher than 80% FEV1/FVC ratio.

TLC  < 80% M...
"In restrictive lung disease, both forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) are reduced, however, the decline in FVC is more than that of FEV1, resulting in a higher than 80% FEV1/FVC ratio.

TLC  < 80% Mild
         < 65% Moderate
         < 50% Severe"
What nerve innervates the diaphragm?
"Phrenic nerve.


"
Are respiratory centers in the brain more or less responsive to changes in O2 and CO2 during sleep?
Less
What changes to ventilation, PCO2, PO2, SaO2, and metabolism and O2 consumption occur during sleep?
How does the body monitor ventilation and gas homeostasis?
"Peripheral chemoreceptors (O2, CO2, H+)
Central Chemoreceptors (H+)
Lung stretch receptors
Muscle and Joint receptors"
Where do peripheral and central chemo- and mecahnoreceptors report?
Medullary inspiratory center
Are intrapulmonary pressure and pressure in the alveoli equal?
Of course!
How does intrapleural volume, and pressure, change on inspiration? Expiration?
"Inspiration:

-volume increase (muscles movement)
-Intrapulmonary (alveolar) pressure decreases
-Air enter the lungs until intrapulmonary pressure equals atmospheric pressure

Expiration:

-passive, produced by relaxation of muscles and recoil of alveoli
-Intrapulmonary pressure increases
-alveoli pressure increases and equilibrates with atmospheric pressure as the air leaves the lungs "
Is lung compliance higher during inspiration or expiration?
"Compliance is higher during expiration

Compliance :
lung intrinsic compliance
+ surface tension at air-liquid interface "
"Compliance is higher during expiration

Compliance :
lung intrinsic compliance
+ surface tension at air-liquid interface "