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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are thought to be the three main factors that demonstrate the differences between LTM and STM?
What are the three stages of the memory process?
How many 'chunks' of information can the STM hold?
7 +/- 2 (5-9)
How long does information stay in the STM before it decays if not rehearsed?
18-30 seconds
Does the STM or LTM encode informatiom semanticly?
How does the STM encode information?
Who came up with the idea of chunks?
Miller (1956)
Who did a study into the duration of LTM?
Bahrick et al (1975)
What were the findings for the LTM duration study?
~90% recall for participants who had left school in the last 15 years
~80% recall for participants who had left school 48 years earlier
What two processes are very important in the MSM?
Attention and Rehearsal
What are the names of the three memory stores that make up the MSM?
~Sensory memory
~Short term memory
~Long term memory
How has the MSM been criticised?
~The model is oversimplified (The model lacks depth due to simplified STM)

~The model focus' too much attention on the importance of rehearsal (flashbulb memories support this argument)

Who provides support for the multistore model and how?

Glazner and Cunitz (1966) using research into the primacy and recency effect.

Who came up with the idea that STM is active in the memory process, and what parts are there to this extended STM explanation?
Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argue that the STM is made up of three parts, the centeral executive, Phonological loop and Visuospatial sketchpad.
WMM stands for?
Working memory model
The phonological loop is split into two parts. What are the names of these two parts?
>Phonological store (Holds speech based information)
>Articulatory control system (Inner voice)
What role does the Visuospatial sketchpad play in the WMM?
Holds visual information, processes visual information and processes spatial information
One strength of the WMM?
It provides a more detailed explanation of STM than the MSM as it can explain performance in Baddelys F study (evidence for)
One weakness of the WMM?
There is not much known about the CE (central executive) and it is difficult to test and quantify
Name three factors that affect EWT.
>Misleading information
>Age of witness
Who did a meta analysis of studies that compared accuracy of children and adults in identifying suspects in an identity parade?
Pozzulo and Lindsay (1998)
What did Pozzulo and Lindsay find in their 1998 study?
>Children under 5 were less likely to identify the correct suspect
>No significant difference in identifying between children over 5 and adults
Who did a lab experiment involving a weapon that showed the affect on EWT using anxiety/weapon focus?
Loftus (1979)
What were the findings of Loftus' Anxiety/weapon focus experiment?
Found 49% accuracy in the no weapon (pen and grease) condition
Found 33% accuracy in the weapon condition (blood stained knife)
Who did a study into Misleading Information's affect on EWT?
Loftus and Palmer (1974)

How many MPH did participants guess the car was going in the Smashed and Contacted conditions?

Smashed= 41mph

Contacted= 32mph

What method can be used to help improve witnesses recall of an event?
Cognitive Interview
Who provided evidence that supported the effectiveness of the cognitive interview?
Fisher (2002)
How much more accurate information did the cognitive interview give over the standard police interview in Fishers 2002 meta-analysis?
What three strategies can be used for memory improvement?