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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

When was Hippocrates born?

460 BC

How many books did galen write?


What did galen develop

Hippocrates idea of four humours into the theory of opposites

What are the four humours

Blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bike

What is the theory of opposites

The idea that you can balance ye humours: too hot - have cucumber

Too cold - eat some curry

Which scientists where the churches homeboys

Galen and hippocrates

How where surgeons trained during the middle ages

They where trained as apprentices, improving by practise and books on surgery

Four facts about medieval hospitals

Run my monks

Cared for the old and needy

Provided warmth, food and prayers

Rarely admitted the sick

When did the back death arrive in England?


What was the death rate or the back death

Over 40% of the population

List three symptoms of the black death

Cough and fever

Multiple organ faliure


Four things that where blamed for the back death

The Jews (oh how times have changed)

The planets aligning

Noxious has from the earth crust

And the good old wrath of God (that man has some serious anger issues)

What percentage of middle ages hospitals cared for the sick


How did people protect against the back death

Gods punishment - they took their clothes of and started whipping themselves like something out of croppers search history

Bad air - they wore cool bird masks with herbs in them

Astrology **** - they prayed to god to stop the planets killing them... And we wonder why 40% of them dropped dead

Three reasons why nothing happened in the middle ages

The church basically controlled everything and where massive cocks when it came to the whole discovering new **** so we don't die as fast thing

Books where hand written so took ages to print and where really expensive

Enquiry was not encouraged: doctors just read galen and didn't do any autopsies and ****

Learn this

Who the **** was Thomas Sydenham?

Tough doctors needed to take a full history of patients health

Belived in allowing body to fight

Pescribed roast chicken to keep up strength

Made detailed notes on many diseases

Richard wiseman

Followed ideas of the four humours.

Firm believer in practising medicine rather than learning from books

The church in the renaissance

Still influencial, most people still believe in God and ****

Renaissance attitudes

Remained largely unchanged as discoveries did little to impact everyday lives, also nobody could read so these new books where a bit useless

Renaissance treatments

Purging and bleeding - all time favourite

Herbal remedies - passed down from mother to daughter, actually half worked cos they had **** like honey which killed bacteria

Tobacco used as all in one cure

Kings touch meant to cure you or some ****


Born in Brussels in 1514

Family of doctors

Performed dissections and mapped blood and nerves

Interested in anatomy

Book: fabric of the human body

William Harvey

Born in Kent

1615 first lecture

Dissected cold-blooded animals

Pushed rods down veins

Proved blood was a one way system

Proved heart pumped blood

Work published 1658

What was the royal society?

London 1645. Had weekly meetings to discuss science and ****.

Had its own labs and **** like microscopes. Published books and articles to spread discoveries

Printing press

Developed by Johaness Gutenberg in the 1450s

Made books cheaper and faster to make

Crucial development


Born in Brussels 1514

Interested in anatomy

Proved galen was wrong about anatomy

Book: the fabric of the human body

Great plague 1665 - God ****

People gave dick magical charms

Physicians tried bleeding/purging

Dried toads used

Put herbs over doorways

Great plague 1665 - progressive ****

Quarantine - red Cross painted on doors

Most people avoided contact with others

Coins dipped in vinegar


1721 lady Marty Wortley brought it from Turkey involves small amount of pathogen

Discovery of microorganisms

Made by Anthony von leenwehork late 1600s - invented the microscope and discovered everything had microorganisms on them, reported findings to Royal society

Louis Pasteur

Discovered that microorganisms where making alcohol go bad and growing in alcohol. Killed bacteria by boiling, discovered that beer, wine and kill also did this. Invented germ theory

What's germ theory

Theory that germs causes diseases

Vaccination - pros

Famous supporters - Thomas Jefferson championed idea, napoleon had all soldiers vaccinated

Significant decrease in deaths from small pox - smallpox now wiped out

Showed value of scientific method

Vaccination - cons

Vaccination voluntary until 1852 - 50 years after discovery. many deaths years continued untill decades after discovery

One off discovery - did not lead to new discoveries

Massive opposition - people didn't accept the evidence Jenner recorded, and less careful doctors sometimes killed their patients - people heard of these stories

Robert Koch

Proved bacteria causes anthrax by injecting a mouse with anthrax bacteria.

Developed better mediums for growing bacteria in

Koch was very good at staining bacteria

Florence nightingale

Reorganised army hospitals

Set up a nursing school

Used statistics to prove her point

Improved sanitation in hospitals

Improved ventilation

Indroduced washing of hands

Took 38 nurses to crimea


Discovered by James Simpson in 1847.

Used in childbirth - Queen Victoria used it for the birth of her 8th child

Made people vomit

Laughing gass

Discovered in 1799 by Sir humphry Davie

Did not make patients completely unconscious - did not fully solve problem


1846 John Collins Warren removed neck tumour using ether

Robert Liston used it during leg amputation

Irritated eyes and lungs, flammable, smelt awful

Problems in cities

Factories polluted air and rivers

Poor water supplies

Cheap housing - poor ventilation, overcrowded

Edwin Chadwick

Worked to improve living standards of the poor

Report on the sanitary conditions of the labouring population

£18 million borrowed for improvements, 50 councils appointed medical officers of health


Regular epidemics. 1848 & 1854 major epidemics

1832 - studies linked cholera and water - 13 years before pastuer.

John snow

Searched for patten of behaviour in victims

House to house enquiries

Listed water pumps people used

Found links to broad street pump.

Methods still used today

DNA discovery - factors

Money - science is expensive

Teamwork - Rosalind, Watson and crick


Made by pencillium mould

Discovered by Alexander Flemming

First antibiotic

Developed and used during ww2


Poisoned and kills bacteria

Found by Gerhardt Domagk in 1932

Active ingredient sulphamade - used for cures for pneumonia, gonorrhea, scarlet fever


Investigated poverty in York

Quarter if population in poverty even though they had jobs

Increased wages, encouraged government to do the same

Liberal government - 1906 - 1914

Provided free meals for children 1906

Pension paid to people over 70 1908

Back to back housing banned 1909

National insurance set up 1911

Free medical treatment in schools 1912