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150 Cards in this Set

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lymphaden/o

produce lymphocytes and filter harmful waste from lymph

tonsill/o, adenoid/o

protect entry into the respiratory system

splen/o

-filters foreign material from the blood


-stores red blood cells, and maintains appropriate balance between cells and plasma in the blood


-destroys old worn out blood cells, acts as a blood reservoir and stores platelets

lymp/o

return cellular waste and tissue fluid to the circulatory system

myel/o

produce blood cells

lymph/o, -cyte

play an important role in immune reactions

thym/o

produce T lymphocytes for the immune system

immun/o

defends body against harmful substances

allergist

specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity such as allergic reactions

hematologist

specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues

immunologist

specialist in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the immune system

oncologist

specialist in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer

interstitial fluid (intercellular fluid)

plasma that flows out of the capillaries of the circirculatory system into the spaces between cells

lymph fluid (lymph)

returns intercellular fluid containing waste products from the cells to the venous circulatory system

lymph capillaries

thin walled tubes that carry lymph fluid from the tissues to the larger lymphatic vessels

lacteals

specialized lymph capillaries located in the villi of the small intestine. fats and fat soluble vitamins are absorbed and carried into the bloodstream

cervical lymph nodes

located in the neck

axillary lymph nodes

located under the arms

inguinal lymph nodes

located in the inguinal area of the lower abdomen

tonsils

masses of lymphatic tissue that form a protective ring around the nose and upper throat

adenoids or nasopharyngeal tonsils

located in nasopharynx

palatine tonsils

located in the portion of the throat that is visible through the mouth

lingual tonsils

located at the base of the tongue

vermiform appendix

lymphatic tissue that hangs from the lower portion of the cecum of the large intestine

peyer's patches

small areas of lymphatic tissue located on the walls of the large intestine

hemolytic

removes and destroys worn-out red blood cells

thymus

located superior to the heart. plays an important role in the endocrine and immune systems

lymphadenitis

inflammation of the lump nodes (aka swollen glands)

lymphadenopathy

any disease process usually involving enlargement of the lymph nodes

persistent generalized lympadenopathy

continued presence of enlarged lymph nodes

lymphangiogram

benign abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels forming a mass

lymphedem

abnormal accumulation of fluid primarily in the legs and ankles that occurs when veins or lymph vessels do not drain properly

splenomegaly

enlargement of the spleen

splenorrhagia

bleeding from the spleen

antigen (ag)

any substance such as a virus, bacterium, or toxin that the body regards as foreign

antibody (Ab)

disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of that specific antigen

immun reaction (antigen-antibody reaction)

involves binding foreign antigens to the antibodies that form antigen-antibody complexes. this tags the potential dangerous antigen so that it can be recognized and destroyed

lymphocytes

WBCs that specialize so they can attack specific microorganisms. formed in the bone marrow and mature and differentiate in the lymphatic tissue throughout the body. two major classes are B and T cells

B lymphocytes

designed to make only one specific antibody against a specific antigen. Most effective against viruses and bacteria

plasma cells

produce and secrete antibodies coded to match the antigen

complement

complex series of proteins that circulate in normal serum. activated on contact with an antigen and aid the antibodies by puncturing the cell membrane of the antigen

immunoglobulin M

first immunoglobulin produced when challenged by an antigen and is found in circulating fluids

Immunoglobulin G

most common type of antibody found in the plasma, formed after second exposure to an antigen

Immunoglobulin A

major antibody that protects against invasion through mucous membranes and is found primarily in tissues other than blood

Immunoglobulin E

provides defenses against environmental antigens. antibody that causes allergic reactions

Immunoglobulin D

found in small amounts in serum and thought to play a role in B-cell differentiation

T lymphocytes

small circulating lymphocytes that have traveled to thymus where they mature. Their primary function is to coordinate immune defenses and to kill invading organisms on contact

interferon

produced by the T cells. Is a family of proteins released by cells when invaded by a virus. They cause non infected cells to form an antiviral protein that slows or stops viral multiplication

lymphokines

produced by T cells, they direct the immune response by signaling between cells. They attract macrophages to the infect site and prepare them to attack

macrophage

type of phagocyte that protects the body by ingesting invading cells

phagocyte

a WBC with the ability to ingest and destroy substances

phagocytosis

the process of ingesting substances such as debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens

natural immunity

immunity passed from a mother to fetus before birth. Also passed through breast milk after birth.

acquired immunity

immunity obtained by the development of antibodies during an attack of an infectious disease

artificial immunity

immunity acquired through vaccination

opportunistic infection

pathogen that normally does not cause disease but is able to cause illness in a weakened host when resistance has been decreased by a different disorder

allergy (hypersensitivity)

overreaction by the body to a particular antigen

allergen

an antigen that is capable of inducing an allergic response

localized allergic response

allergic response where the body does not react the first time it is exposed to an allergen. sensitivity is established and future contacts cause symptoms

anaphylaxis

severe response to a foreign substance. symptoms develop quickly and include swelling, blockage of air ways, or a drop in bp

scratch test

diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesome allergens. swelling and itching indicate an allergic reaction

antihistamines

medications administered to block and control allergic reactions

autoimmune disorder

condition in which the immune system misreads normal antigens and creates antibodies and directs T cells against the body's own tissues

crohns disease

autoimmune disease that affects the intestines, ileum, or colon

diabetes mellitus type 1

autoimmune disease that affects the insulin producing pancreatic cells

graves disease

autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland

hashimotos thyroiditis

autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid gland. produces butterfly rash

lupus erythematosus

autoimmune disease that affects the skin and other body systems

myasthenia gravis

autoimmune disease that affects the nerve/muscle synapses

multiple sclerosis

autoimmune disease that affects the brains and spinal cord

psoriasis

autoimmune disease that affects the skin

rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune disease that affects the connective tissues particularly in the hands

scleroderma

autoimmune disease that affects the skin and other tissues

immunodeficiency disorder

condition that occurs when one or more parts of the immune system are deficient or missing

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a bloodborne pathogen that invades and then progressively impairs or kills cells of the immune system

enzyme-linked immunoasorbent assay (ELISA)

blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies

false-positive

an inaccurate test result indicating the presence of a disease (HIV) when it is not true

western blot test

2nd test run when ELISA test is positive, is used to confirm diagnosis of HIV

immunotherapy

treatment of disease either by enhancing or repressing the immune response


ex: allergy treatment represses immune response, cancer treatment stimulates immune response

synthetic immunoglobulins (immune serum)

used as a post exposure preventive measure against certain viruses

synthetic interferon

used in the treatment of hepatitis B and C and some cancers

monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)

antibodies produces in the lab. used in lab research, medical tests, and treatment of some non-hodgkins lymphoma, melanoma, and breast and colon cancers

immunosuppression

treatment use to interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens

immunosuppressant

drug that prevents or reduces the body's normal reactions to invasion by disease or foreign tissues. often used to prevent rejection of donor tissues

corticosteroid drug

drug that is a hormone like preparation used primarily as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant

cytotoxic drug

drug that kills or damages cells

antineoplastic

blocks the growth of neoplasms and is used to treat cancer

pathogen

microorganism that causes a disease

bacteria

group of one-celled microscopic organisms whose types include bacilli, rickettsia, spirochetes, staphylococci, and streptococci

bacilli

rod shaped spore forming bacteria. Tetanus and tuberculosis cased by this.

rickettsia

small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites that transmit infection to humans. ex: rocky mountain spotted fever

spirochetes

spiral shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement. lyme disease caused by this.

staphylococci

bacteria that form irregular groups. Endocarditis pneumonia and some skin infections caused by this

streptococci

bacteria that form a chain. pharyngitis (strep throat) is caused by this

fungus

simple parasitic plant

aspergillosis

infection caused by a fungus of the genus aspergillus. may caused inflammation and lesions on or in any organ

moniliasis

infection of the skin or mucous membranes caused by the pathogenic yeast candida albicans. usually localized in mouth or vagina

parasite

plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of the that organism

malaria

caused by a parasite that lives within certain mosquitoes and is transferred to humans by mosquito bite

viruses

very small infectious agents that live only by invading cells. they reproduce and break cell walls to release themselves to infect other cells

chickenpox

acute highly contagious viral disease characterized by a fever and pustules. caused by varicella zoster and transmitter by respiratory droplets or direct contact with sores

cytomegalovirus CMV

an infection caused by a group of large herpes type viruses with a wide variety of disease effects

herpes zoster (shingles or HZ)

acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of the inflamed nerve. inflammation is caused by dormant chickenpox virus reactivated years later with a compromised immune system

infectious mononucleosis

caused by eptsein-barr virus, characterized by fever, every sore throat and enlarge lymph nodes. kissing disease

measles

acute, highly contagious coral disease transmitted by respiratory droplets. characterized first by appearance of kopeks spots and then followed by skin rash

kopliks spots

small red spots with blue white center that appear on the lining of mouth

mumps

acute viral disease characterized by swelling of parotid glands

rabies

acute viral infection that may be trasnmitted to humans by the blood, tissue, or saliva of an infected animal

rubella (german measles)

viral infection characterized by fever and a diffuse, fine, red rash

antibiotic

chemical substance that is capable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic microorganisms. used to combat bacterial infections

bactericide

substance that causes the death of bacteria. primarily the antibiotic groups of penicillins and cephalosporins

bacteriostatic

agent that inhibits, slows, or retards the growth of baxter. primarily include antibiotic groups of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and erythromycins

antiviral drug

used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity

oncology

study of the prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer

tumor (neoplasm)

new and abnormal tissue formation

angiogenesis

whats the term for when a tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply

benign

not recurring, nonmalignant, and with favorable chance for recovery

myoma

benign neoplasm made up of muscle tissue

malignant

harmful, tending to spread, becoming progressively worse, and life-threatening

carcinoma in situ

describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surround tissues

invasive malignancy

bad tumor that grows and spreads into healthy adjacent tissues

metastasize

verb that describes the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another

metastasis

the new cancer site that results from the spreading process

staging

the process of classifying tumors with respect to how far the disease has progressed, the potential for its responding to therapy, and the patients prognosis

stage 1

stage of hodgkins where it is limited to lymph nodes in one area of the body such as one side of the neck

stage 2

stage of hodgkins where it involves lymph nodes in two or more areas on the same side of the diaphragm

stage 3

stage of hodgkins where it involves lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm

stage 4

stage of hodgkins that involves lymph nodes plus other tissues including bone marrow, lungs or liver

carcinoma

malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue


adenocarcinoma


any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissue


sarcoma

malignant tumor that arises from connective tissue. affected tissues include bones, bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs,muscles, or spleen


osteosarcoma

malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee

myosarcoma

malignant soft tissue sarcoma derived from muscle tissue

kaposis sarcoma

opportunistic infection frequently associated with HIV. may affect skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes and internal organs

lymphoma

general term applied to malignancies that develop in the lymphatic system. two most common types are hodgkins and non hodgkins

hodgkins disease

distinguished by the presence of reed sternberg cells. these are large cancerous lymphocytes tha tare identified by microscopic examination of a biopsy specimen taken from an enlarged lymph node

non-hodgkins lymphomas

used to describe all lymphomas other than hodgkins lymphoma. cells of the lymphatic system divide and grow without any order or control which causes tumors to develop in different locations

balstoma

neoplasm composed chiefly or entirely of immature undifferentiated cells

neurobalstoma

a sarcoma of the nervous system origin

retinoblastoma

a malignant tumor of childhood arising from cells of the retina of the eye and usually occurring before the third year of life

invasive ductal carcinoma

breast cancer that starts in the MILK DUCTS, breaks through the wall of the duct and invades fatty breast tissue. accounts for the majority of breast tissue

ductal carcinoma in situ

breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the duct

invasive lobular carcinoma

cancer that starts in the MILK GLANDS, breaks through the wall of the gland and invades the fatty tissue of the breast

lympectomy

surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and a margin of normal tissue

modified radical mastectomy

surgical removal of the entire breast and lymph nodes under the arm

three most common forms of cancer treatments

surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy

chemotherapy

use of chemical agents and drugs in combinations selected to effectively destroy malignant cells and tissues

radiation therapy

treatment of cancers through the use of x-rays. goal is to destroy the cancer while sparing healthy tissues

brachytherapy

use of radioactive materials in contact with or implanted into the tissues to be treated

teletherapy

radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body