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71 Cards in this Set

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albumin
protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood.
anisocytosis
abnormality of red blood cells; unequal and increase in the number of cells
antibody (AB)
protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens
anticoagulant
inhibit blood clotting, so clots do not form
antigen
substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
basophil
white blood cell containing granules that stain blue; associated with release of histamine and heparin
bilirubin
orange-yellow pigment in bile; formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die
coagulation
blood clotting
coagulopathy
bleeding disorder
colony-stimulating factor (CSF)
protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells
cytology
the study of cells, their origin, structure, function, and pathology
differentiation
change in structure and function of a cell as it matures; specialization
electrophoresis
method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge
eosinophil
white blood cell containing granules that stain red; associated with allergic reaction
eosinophilia
An abnormal increase in the number of a specific type of white blood cell
erythrocyte
red blood cell
erythropoiesis
formation of red blood cells
erythroblast
an immature form of a red blood cell. It is normally found only in bone marrow and contains hemoglobin.
erythropoietin (EPO)
hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell formation
fibrin
protein threads that form the basic of a blood clot
fibrinogen
plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
globulin
plasma protein; alpha, beta, and gamma (immune) globulins are examples
granulocyte
white blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules; eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil
granulocytopenia
abnormally low number of granular white blood cells in the blood.
hematopoiesis
the formation and development of blood cells
hemoglobin
blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells
hemoglobinopathy
A disorder caused by or associated with the presence of abnormal hemoglobins in the blood.
hemolysis
destruction or breakdown of blood ( red blood cells)
heparin
anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells
hypochromic
decreased concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells
immune reaction
response of the immune system to foreign invasion
immunoglobulin
protein with antibody activity; examples are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
leukapheresis
The removal of a quantity of white blood cells from the blood of a donor with the remaining portions of the blood retransfused into the donor.
leukocyte
white blood cells
leukopenia
An abnormally low number of white blood cells in the circulating blood.
lymphocyte
mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies
macrocytosis
erythrocytes that are larger than normal
macrophage
monocyte that migrates from the blood to tissue space. As a phagocyte, it engulfs foreign material and debris
megakaryocyte
large platelet precursor cell found in the bone marrow
microcytosis
erythrocytes that are smaller then normal
monoblast
immature cell that develops into a monocyte.
monocyte
leukocyte with one large nucleus. it is a cell that engulfs foreign material and debris. Monocytes become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissues
mononuclear
pertaining to a cell with a single round nucleus; lymphocytes and monocytes are mononuclear leukocytes
morphology
the study of form
myeloblast
An immature cell in the granulocytic series, occurring normally in bone marrow but not in the blood.
myelodysplasia
Abnormal development of the spinal cord.
myeloid
derived from, or resembling bone marrow or the spinal cord
myelopoiesis
The formation of bone marrow or of blood cells derived from bone marrow.
neutropenia
The presence of abnormally small numbers of neutrophils in the blood
neutrophil
granulocytic leukocyte found in bone marrow. it is a phagocytic tissue-fighting cell. also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte
neutrophilia
An increase of neutrophilic white blood cells in blood or tissues.
pancytopenia
marked reduction in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
phagocyte
A cell, such as a white blood cell, that engulfs and absorbs waste material, harmful microorganisms, or other foreign bodies in the bloodstream and tissues.
plasma
liquid portion of blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, and vitamins
plasmapheresis
removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge. Collected cells are retransfused back into the donor. Fresh-frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasma
platelet
small blood fragment that collects at sites of injury to begin the clotting process
platelepheresis
platelets are removed for the donor's blood and the remainder of the blood is reinfused into the donor.
poikilocytosis
irregularity in the shape of red blood cells
polymorphonuclear
Having nuclei of varied forms; denoting a variety of leukocyte.
prothrombin
plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process
reticulocyte
immature erythrocyte. A network of strands is seen after staining the cell with special dyes
Rh Factor
antigen on red blood cells of Rh-positive (RH+) individuals. The factor was first identified in the blood of a rhesus monkey.
serum
plasma minus clotting proteins and cells. Clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot. It is formed from plasma, but does not contain protein-coagulation factors
sideropenia
An abnormally low level of iron in the blood serum.
Spherocytosis
in this condition, the erythrocyte has a round shape, making the cell fragile and easily able to be distorted
stem cell
unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms. A hematopoietic stem cell is the progenitor for all different types of blood cells
thrombin
enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation
thrombocyte
platelet
thrombocytopenia
Thrombocytopenia is an abnormal drop in the number of blood cells involved in forming blood clots. These cells are called platelets.
thrombolytic therapy
Thrombolytic therapy is the use of drugs that dissolve blood clots
thrombosis
Formation or presence of a thrombus.