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### 61 Cards in this Set

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 Acceleration The rate of change of velocity, measured in metres per second squared. Acceleration of Free Fall (g) The acceleration of a body falling under gravity. On earth this value is 9.81. Average Speed A measure of total distance travelled in a unit time. Braking Distance The distance a vehicle travels while decelerating to a stop. Brittle A material that distorts very little even when subject to a large stress and does not exhibit any plastic deformation. Centre of Gravity The point at which the entire weight of an object can be considered to act, Components of a Vector The results from resolving a single vector into horizontal and vertical parts. Compressive Force Two or more forces that have the effect of reducing the volume of the object on which they are acting, or reducing the length of the spring. Conservation of Energy Physical law stating that energy cannot be created or destroyed, just transformed from one form to another or transferred from one place to another. This is the situation in any closed system. Couple Two forces that are equal and opposite to each other but not in the same straight line. Crumple Zone An area of a vehicle designed to increase the distance over which the vehicle decelerates and so reduces the average force acting. Displacement Distance travelled in a particular direction. Distance How far one position is from another. Drag The resistive force that acts on a body when it moves through a fluid. Ductile Materials that have a large plastic region, therefore can be drawn into a wire. Elastic Deformation The object will return to its original shape when the deforming force is removed. Elastic Limit The point at which elastic deformation becomes plastic deformation. Elastic Potential Energy The energy stored in a stretched or compressed object. Energy The stored ability to do work. Eqilibrium When there is zero resultant force acting on an object. Extension The change in length of an object when subjected to a tension. Force A push or a pull on an object. Force Constant The constant of proportionality in Hooke's law. Free Fall When an object is accelerating under gravity. Global Positioning System A network of satellites used to determine an object's position on the Earth's surface. Gravitational Force The force due to a gravitational field acting on an objects mass. Gravitational Potential Energy Energy an object possesses because of its position in a gravitational field. Hooke's Law The extension of an elastic body is proportional to the force that causes it. Instantaneous Speed The speed of an object at a given moment in time. Joule Unit of energy, work done when a force of 1N moves its point of application 1 metre in the direction of the force. Kinetic Energy The work an object can do by virtue of its speed. Moment of a Force The turning effect due to a single force, calculated from the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from a given point. Newton Unit of Fore, 1N is the force which gives a mass of 1kg an acceleration of 1ms^-2. Plastic Deformation The object will not return to its original shape when the deforming force is removed, it becomes permanently distorted. Pressure Force per unit area, 1PA = 1Nm^-1. Principle of Moments For a body in rotational equilibrium the sum of the clockwise moments equals the sum of the anticlockwise moments. Resultant Force The overall velocity when two or more velocities are combined. Resultant Velocity The overall velocity when two or more velocities are combined. Scalar A physical property with magnitude (size_ but not direction; i.e, Speed, Distance, Pressure etc Speed Distance travelled per unit time. Spring Constant Force per unit extension. Stopping Distance The sum of the thinking distance and the braking distance. Strain The extension per unit length. Stress The force per unit cross-sectional area, measured in Pascals. Tensile Force Two equal and opposite forces acting on a wire in order to stretch it. When both forces have the value T, the tensile force is T not 2T. Tensile Stress The tensile force per unit cross-sectional area. Terminal Velocity The velocity at which an object's drag equals its accelerating force. Therefore there is no resultant force and zero acceleration. Thinking Distance The distance travelled from seeing the need to stop to applying the brakes. Thurst A type of force due to an engine. Torque The turning effect due to a couple. Turning Forces One or more forces that if unbalanced will cause rotation. Ultimate Tensile Strength The maximum tensile force that can be applied to an object before it breaks. Ultimate Tensile Stress The maximum stress that can be applied to an object before it breaks. Upthrust A force on an object due to a difference in pressure when immersed in a fluid. Vector A physical quantity that has both magnitude and direction; i.e, Velocity, Force, Acceleration, etc. Velocity The displacement per unit time. Velocity-Time Graph A motion graph showing velocity against time for a given body. Volume A physical quantity representing how much 3D space an object occupies. Weight The gravitational force on a body. Work Done The product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of the force. Young Modulus The ratio between stress and strain.