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22 Cards in this Set

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Molecule that is recognized by cells of the immune system is called =
antigen
Antigens

Antigens may consist of soluble molecules & whole cells such as =
proteins
polysaccharides
nucleoproteins

&

bacteria
protozoa
tumor cells
virus-infected cells
Antigens

The cells of the immune system do not recognize and react to the whole antigen molecule but instead react to =
small molecular domains of the antigen known as =
2ct
antigenic determinants
or
epitopes.
Some epitopes (e.g.
polysaccharides of bacterial walls
or
lipids

usually elicit a humoral response whereas

proteins
elicit both a
cellular and
humoral response.
An antibody is a =
glycoprotein
Antibodies belong to the *_______________ protein family.
immunoglobulin (Ig)
Antibody

two identical light chains
two identical heavy chains bound by disulfide bonds and noncovalent forces
NH2 end of the light and heavy chains bind the antigen.


Fc region 
may bind to surface receptors of several cell types.
NH2 end of the light and heavy chains bind the antigen.

Fc region
may bind to surface receptors of several cell types.
info
info
.
T cells Nm =
Cytotoxic, or CD8+ T cells
T cells

act against foreign cells or virus-infected cells by means of two main mechanisms. =
1
Release proteins called perforins that create holes in the cell membrane

2
By triggering mechanisms that induce programmed cell death, or apoptosis.
**CD4+ cells are ______________
restricted

The cell is aka
MHC 2

info +
MHC 2

CD4+ T helper cells are white blood cells

info +
CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells
CD8+ cells are ___________
restricted
MHC 1

info +
MHC 1
Info

The first encounter of a CD4+ or CD8+ T cell with its specific epitope is followed by amplification of that clone; some of the cells of this increased population become effector cells and some remain memory helper or memory cytotoxic T cells, reacting rapidly to the next presentation of the same epitope.
.
___ is the most abundant class representing 80% of serum immunoglobulins.
IgG
___ is the only immunoglobulin that crosses the placental barrier
IgG
__ is the main immunoglobulin found in secretions, such as nasal, bronchial, intestinal, and prostatic, as well as in tears, colostrum, saliva, and vaginal fluid.

what type of antibody =
IgA
its Fc region attaches to the receptors present on the surfaces of mast cells and basophils

what type of antibody =
IgE
the antigen–antibody complex triggers the liberation of granules. (*** Allergic response-typical response =
IgE
__ is found on the plasma membranes of B lymphocytes.
IgD


The properties and activities of IgD are not completely understood. Its concentration in blood plasma constitutes only 0.2% of the immunoglobulins. IgD is found on the plasma membranes of B lymphocytes.
Actions of Antibodies

What is the term of the description below:

occurs because macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils have receptors for the Fc region of IgG on Antigen–antibody complexes and some antigens activate the complement system, a group of around 20 plasma proteins produced mainly in the liver and activated through a cascade of reactions.
Opsonization

Info+
Some antibodies are able to agglutinate cells and to precipitate soluble antigens, thus neutralizing their harmful effects on the body.

Although phagocytosis of microorganisms and other particles occurs spontaneously, this event is greatly stimulated when they are covered by antibodies produced against them, a phenomenon called opsonization.
Where do compliment protiens come from =
Made in the Liver.
one of their main roles is to send signals to other types of immune cells, included CD8 killer cells. CD4 cells send the signal and CD8 cells destroy and kill the infection or virus.

info
.