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89 Cards in this Set

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microtubules

largest diameter, tubulin based

neurofilaments

intermediate diameter, only in neurons

microfilaments

smallest diameter, actin based

neurofibrillary tangles

tangles of tau protein, disrupts cytoskeleton

amyloid plaques

accumulation so beta amyloid protein. Not associated with cytoskeleton

(a lot/ not a lot) protein synthesis in axon

not a lot

beginning region of axon

hillock

branch region of axon

branches

microtubules found in (axon terminal/axon)

axon

lot of mitochondria and membrane proteins found in (axon terminal/axon)

terminal

what is HRP and what kind of transport does go through (anterograde/retrograde)

retrograde

ways to classify neurons

1. number of neurites


2. somatic morphology


3. dendritic morphology


4. connections within CNS


5. axonal length


6. neurotransmitter type

types of glia

1. astrocytes


2. microglia


3. ependymal cells


4. oligodendrocytes


5. Schwann cells

what type of glia cleans up damaged neurons

microglia

what type of glia line the ventricles and produce CSF

ependymal

what type of glia myelinate axons in CNS and can myelinate multiple axons

oligodendrocytes

what type of glia myelinate axons in PNS and can only myelinate single axons

schwann cells

myelin is made 80% of what and why

lipid for electrical insulation

what are nodes of ranvier

small gaps in myelin sheath that propagates nerve impulses

what were Golgi's thoughts on neurons

they were a continuous reticulum

who favored the neuron doctrine and what was its principles

Cajal; neurons were fundamental units of the nervous system

what part of neuron doe golgi stain

neurons entirety

what part of neuron does nissel stain

RNA and nuclei

afferent vs efferent

toward vs away

dorsal roots

sensory input from skin, joints, muscles

ventral roots

motor output to muscles

spinal circuits

mediate sensory motor reflexes

what are the meninges in order

Dura mater


arachnoid membrane


pia mater

what is meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

what is a subdural hematoma or subarachnoid hemorage

blood gathers in meningeal lining

rostral vs__

caudal

dorsal vs __

ventral

what is included in CNS

brain and spinal cord

how many cranial nerves

12

alzheimers is defined by

brain shrinkage and enlarged ventricles

CSF circulation

choroid plexus-> ventricles -> subarachnoid space

what does choroid plexus do

secretes CSF

reference potential for electrical potential

0

resting membrane potential

60 to 70

time dependent potentials

1. receptor potential


2. action potential


3. synaptic potential

cation (+/-)

+

anions (+/-)

-

two elements that contribute to potential difference

concentration difference and permeability

what does nernst potential depend on

ration of ion concentrations


temp


charge of ion

log review

K nerst potential

-80

Na nerst potenial

62

Ca2+ nerst potential

123

Cl nerst potential

-65

K is found (in/out) cell

in

Na, Cl, and Ca are found (in/out) cell

out

what happens in sodium potassium exchange

Na out


K in

what happens in calcium pump

Ca out

how do astrocytes contribute to cell membrane potentials

help put K into cell with K channels

tight junctions of endothelial cells make up

blood brain barrier

ion pumps are (independent/dependent) of ATP

dependent

what is orthodromic propagation

spikes from soma to terminals

what is antidromic propagation

spikes from terminal to soma

what happens at the rest part of action potential mechanism

net current = 0



what happens at the rising part of action potential mechanism

Na channels open, Na come in

what happens at the peak part of action potential mechanism

net current = 0, Na inward= K outward

what happens at the falling phase part of action potential mechanism

Na channels close, outward K, hyperpolarization

absolute refractory period

cant fire, NA channels inactivated

relative refractory period

can fire, Na channels work

difference between K channels and Na channels

K channels are non inactivating and open to delay. Na channels inactivate rapidly and opens rapidly

what do neurotoxins do

block voltage fated NA channels and eliminates action potentials

voltage gated Na channels are concentrated at what part of the neuron

nodes of ranvier

what is orthodromic propagation

propagates in normal direction

what is antidromic propagation

opposite direction of orthodromic

velocity (increases/decreases) with increasing axon diameter

increases

guillain barre syndrome

acute, PNS, paralysis

multiple sclerosis

chronic, CNS, temporally distributed onset of symptoms

which is shorter: axons or dendrites

dendrites

most synapses fall in which category: chemical or electrical

chemical

what are connexons

part of a gap junction (a large ass pore)

(presynaptic/postsynaptic) potentials are smaller

postsynaptic

what is ACh

acetylcholine- neurotransmitter at NMJ

3 classes of neurotransmitters

1. amino acids


2. amines


3. neuropeptides



neurotransmitter release requires what protein

SNARE proteins

botulism disrupts what

disrupts SNARE proteins, prevents vesicle fusion, leads to muscle paralysis

what are the post synaptic neurotransmitters

1. ionotropic receptor- direction action; is a channel


2. metabotropic receptor- indirect action; interacts with channels

what is EPSP

potential that depolarizes

what is IPSP

potential that hyperpolarizes

AChE breaks down ACh into

choline and acetate

if the reversal potential is greater than the action potential threshold, the synapse is (excitatory/inhibitory)

excitatory

what class of neurotransmitter has GABA, glutamate, glycine, and aspartate

amino acids

what class of neurotransmitter has ACh, DA, NE, wpinephrine, serotonin and histamine

amines

what class of neurotransmitter anything ending in -ergic

peptides

The cells bodies of neurons typically contain more rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) than do the cell bodies of glial cells. (T/F)

T