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179 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What is the dollar amount of absolute poverty? When was it set, and by who?

$1.25/day, World Bank in 2005

What is acquisition in the context of conditioning?

The phase of conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus and the animal is learning to give a conditioned response.

What is the function of the adrenal medulla?

To release epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and enkephalin in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

What is the function of the anterior pituitary?

To release growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocoricotropic hormone, beta-endorphin, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin.

What is the function of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)? From where is it released?

Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

Released from anterior pituitary.

What is the function of adrenocoricotropic hormone (ACTH)? From where is it released?

Its principal effects are increased production and release of corticosteroids. Released from anterior pituitary.

What is the function of enkephalin? From where is it released?

Involved in regulating nociception in the body.

Released from adrenal medulla.

What is the function of follicle stimulation hormone (FSH)? Where is it released from?

Regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation and reproductive processes of the body. Released from anterior pituitary.

What is the function of luteinizing hormone? Where is it released from?

In females, an acute rise of LH ("LH surge") triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum.

In males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.

Released from anterior pituitary.

What is the function of prolactin? Where is it released from?

It stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk (lactation): increased serum concentrations of prolactin during pregnancy cause enlargement of the mammary glands of the breasts and prepare for the production of milk.

Released from anterior pituitary.

What are some examples of anxiety disorders?

excessive anxiety or fear as a result of: phobia, panic, OCD, PTSD

What is attachment theory?

Attachment theory describes a series of steps that infants will progress through as they grow. During the first three months of life, an infant will indiscriminately attach to any person and will respond equally to any caregiver. Around 4 to 6 months babies will begin to recognize certain caregivers but will still accept care from anyone. From 6 to 9 months a baby will exhibit a strong attachment preference for a single caregiver, although the pattern of that attachment will vary based on the relationship that has developed between the caregiver and the child. After 9 months, children slowly develop increasing independence and will slowly form multiple attachments.

What are the components of attitude?

"ABC" components; Affective: feeling toward certain objects; Behavior: attitude is influenced by behavior; Cognitive: thoughts, theories, beliefs about a subject.

What is attribution theory?

A process of explaining what happens by attributing causes to the environment, or attributing certain thoughts or feelings to other people.

List the components of the auditory pathway.

Outer ear

Auditory canal

Tympanic membrane

Middle ear (malleus, incus, stapes)

Inner ear (cochlea)

Organ of Corti

Vestibulocochlear nerve


Temporal lobe

What is avoidance learning?

A behavior prevents a negative stimulus (e.g. pressing a lever before the noise starts keeps it silent)

What is the behaviorist perspective of personality?

Personality is a learning process of operant conditioning controlled by the environment. People have response tendencies which create behavior patterns. Childhood isn't the crucial period as the environment-based learning continues through life.

What is a bias, and what are some examples?

Cognitive or motivational forces that result in repeated, systematic deviations from rational judgment. (e.g. availability heuristic, congruence bias, outcome bias)

What is availability heuristic?

a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision

What is congruence bias?

Congruence bias occurs due to people's overreliance on directly testing a given hypothesis as well as neglecting indirect testing. People will try to validate their hypothesis, rather than indirectly testing to see if their hypothesis is wrong.

What is the biological perspective of personality?

Personality reflects the functioning of physiological processes in the brain. Influenced by hormone levels, neurotransmitter levels, size and development of various brain structures. Associated with Eysenck's Three Factor Model.

What is body dysmorphic disorder?

Somatoform disorder in which the patient has excessive concern with a perceived defect or deficiency in their body.

BDD sufferers may perform some type of compulsive or repetitive behavior to try to hide or improve their flaws although these behaviors usually give only temporary relief.

Examples are listed below:

* camouflaging (with body position, clothing, makeup, hair, hats, etc.)
* comparing body part to others' appearance
* seeking surgery
* checking in a mirror
* avoiding mirrors
* skin picking
* excessive grooming
* excessive exercise
* changing clothes excessively

What is the bystander effect?

The more individuals present, the less likely it is that someone will offer help.

Cannon-Bard theory

Emotional expression is hypothalamic. Emotional feeling is dorsal thalamus.

Physiology and subjective feeling are independent. Physiological arousal does not have to precede subjective feeling of emotion. (this is the opposite theory to James-Lange)

The mechanism they propose is that the thalamus, upon receiving sensory input from an external stimulus, sends signals to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in both an emotional response and a physiological response (reflex) simultaneously. Therefore, it is not an emotion that is responsible for a physical response, rather, emotion and physical response are simultaneous processes.

Central route processing

This method focuses on facts and the content of the message in order to convince the listener, as opposed to relying on peripheral factors like the personality of the speaker, or how the message was delivered. For example, a TV ad that presents laboratory findings to demonstrate the effectiveness of an acne treatment would be using the Central Route to Persuasion, as opposed to one that only uses a celebrity endorser.

Classical conditioning

a form of learning in which an animal pairs a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus in order to achieve a natural response to the neutral stimulus (ring a bell and a dog salivates)

Cognitive dissonance

Mental discomfort when someone holds two contradictory beliefs at once.

This theory starts from the idea that we seek consistency in our beliefs and attitudes in any situation where two cognitions are inconsistent.

Leon Festinger (1957) proposed cognitive dissonance theory, which states that a powerful motive to maintain cognitive consistency can give rise to irrational and sometimes maladaptive behavior.

According to Festinger, we hold many cognitions about the world and ourselves; when they clash, a discrepancy is evoked, resulting in a state of tension known as cognitive dissonance. As the experience of dissonance is unpleasant, we are motivated to reduce or eliminate it, and achieve consonance (i.e. agreement).

Cognitive theories of motivation

Motivation is based on cognitive processes. For example, to reduce cognitive dissonance, or in goal-setting theory to reach a particular end state.

Concrete operational stage

Piaget Stage 3: 7-11 years. Concrete operational stage. Child can solve problems in a logical fashion. Can begin to understand induction, but still have trouble with deduction. They can go from observation -> theory, but not vice versa.

Conflict theory

A variety of approaches to sociology that focus on inequality between social groups and the power differentials that exist between them. Most strongly associated with Karl Marx.


Matching behavior to social norms as a result of direct or unconscious pressure. Conforming behavior occurs both in groups and while alone.

Conversion disorder

Somatoform disorder in which a patient suffers numbness, blindness or paralysis with no identifiable medical cause.

Cultural capital

Non-economic assets that provide value to an individual and that can promote social mobility (e.g. education, dress, attractiveness, humor)

Cultural relativism

An attempt to study societies while minimizing ethnocentric bias.


When an individual loses a sense of self-awareness when in a group. Deindividuation as person moves into a group results in a loss of individual identity and a gaining of the social identity of the group. When two groups argue (and crowd problems are often between groups), it is like two people arguing. The three most important factors for deindividuation in a group of people are:

* Anonymity, so I can not be found out.
* Diffused responsibility, so I am not responsible for my actions.
* Group size, as a larger group increases the above two factors.

Demographic shift

The increase in the median age of a country due to rising life expectancy and/or birth rate. Has happened in nearly every country in the world as it becomes more economically developed.


Region of embryonic neural tube that leads to the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus.

Dissociative disorders

Mental disorders involving breakdown in memory, awareness and identity. Includes dissociative identity disorder, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorder.

Divided attention

The ability of the brain to perform multiple tasks at once. Performance per task drops as the number of tasks increases.

Dramaturgical approach

A perspective on sociology that focuses on the context of human behavior rather than the causes, viewing everyday social interactions as a form of performance in which people are playing roles.

Drive reduction theory

Motivation results from an organism's desire to reduce a drive (hunger, thirst, sex)

Elaboration likelihood model

A process of persuasion in which attitudes are influenced both by high elaboration factors (e.g. processing and evaluating info) and low elaboration ones (e.g. the attractiveness of the person making the appeal).

Emotion components

Cognition: evaluation of events

Physiology: bodily responses

Motivation: motor responses an emotion generates

Expression: facial and vocal signals of the feeling

Feelings: subjective experience of the emotion

List the endocrine organs

Hypothalamus, Pineal Gland, Pituitary, Thyroid, Adrenal Medulla, Testes, Ovaries

Environmental justice

The effort to fairly distribute environmental benefits and environmental burdens across all society.

Erikson stages of psychosocial identity development

0-2yrs, Hopes, Trust vs Mistrust

2-4yrs, Will, Autonomy vs Shame

4-5yrs, Purpose, Initative vs Guilt

5-12yrs, Competence, Industry vs Inferiority

13-19yrs, Fidelity, Identity vs Role Confusion

20-39, Love, Intimacy vs Isolation

40-64yrs, Care, Generativity vs Stagnation

65-death, Wisdom, Ego Integrity vs Despair

Escape learning

A behavior stops a negative stimulus


The process of judging another culture by the values and standards of your own culture.


When the conditioned stimulus stops generating a conditioned response.

Eysenck's three factor model

Model of personality based on activity of reticular formation and limbic system. Personality composed of:

1) Extraversion

2) Neuroticism

3) Psychotism

Fixed interval

Reinforcement after the first response, after a fixed time has elapsed.

Fixed ratio

Reinforcement after a fixed number of responses.

Foot in the door phenomenon

Getting someone to agree to a small request increases the likelihood they will agree to a much larger one

Formal operational stage

Piaget Stage 4: age 11+. Formal operational stage. Can do hypothetical and deductive reasoning and think about abstract concepts. Moral reasoning develops.

Freud stages of psychosexual identity development

Oral: 0-1yr, oral fixation is a passive immature personality

Anal: 1-3yr, anal fixation is obsessively neat/organized personality

Phallic: 3-6yr, fixation can be oedipus complex

Latency: 6-12yr, fixation leads to sexual unfulfillment

Genital: puberty-death, fixation leads to frigidity, impotence

Front stage vs back stage

Front stage: how a person behaves when an audience is present.

Back stage: how a person behaves when no audience is present.


Each part of society contributes to the stability of the whole society. Each part – mainly the institutions of society. Whole society – complex system. All parts have to work together for successful stability. Emphasizes the consensus and order that exist in society. Members of the society agreed to social consensus. Divergent behavior that causes disorder in the system leads to change in societal components is not wanted. This theory has been criticized by many sociologists because it neglects negative functions that occur in the society, and it does not encourage the members of the society to take active role to change social environment.

Fundamental attribution error

Overvaluing a personality-based explanation rather than environmental explanations. For example, explaining that members of an ethic group must be poor because they are all lazy, rather than environmental impediments to their ability to get out of poverty.


When a new stimulus that is similar to a conditioned stimulus comes to generate the same or similar response.

Gestalt principles

Laws of perceptual organization that guide the brain in making a whole out of sensory parts.

1) Items that are similar are grouped together.

2) Reality is broken down into simplest form.

3) Objects close together are grouped together.

4) Lines are seen as following the smoothest path.

5) Items grouped together are seen as a whole.


A breakdown in decision making in which groups value coherence and loyalty to the group over critical analysis of the decisions.

Heuristics in problem solving

A quick way to solve a problem using experience when a full exhaustive search would be impossible. Generates results that may not be the best (e.g. rule of thumb, educated guess, intuition, etc.)

Humanistic perspective on personality

Personality develops as a person grows psychologically. Emphasizes free will and self-actualization. Associated with Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs, in order of first (most important) level to last.

Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs are thought to be the most important; they should be met first.

Safety and Security needs include:

* Personal security
* Financial security
* Health and well-being
* Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts
* Friendship
* Intimacy
* Family

Esteem: all humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition.

Self-actualization: "What a man can be, he must be." This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a person's full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.


A mental state in which the subject is focused intensely on particular thought or memory while being more open to suggestion.


Portion of brain connected to endocrine system. Produces: Dopamine, Growth Hormone Release Hormone, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Somatostatin, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Oxytocin, Vasopressin

Incentive theory

Motivation is based on external incentives rather than internal drives. People's varying behaviors result from the different incentives in their environment and the differing values they place on those incentives.

Inclusive fitness

The ability of an organism to increase its fitness by behaving altruistically to support a group (e.g. bees).


Any group that a person psychologically identifies as their own.

Innate behaviors

Behaviors that occur in the absence of learning or experience (endogenous).

Interactionist theory of language development

Language is acquired through social interactions with adults. Emphasizes the role of feedback and reinforcement.

James-Lange theory

Emotion starts as a physiological state in the body and emotions are reactions to those bodily responses.

Kinesthetic sense (Kinesthesia)

Sense of the position of the body parts relative to one another.

Kohlberg stages

Stages that represent an individual's ability to reason through ethical and moral questions. Relate not to the outcome (decisions made), but the process by which an individual thinks about ethical questions.

Pre-conventional: obediance and punishment.

Conventional: conformity, authority of obedience.

Post-conventional: universal ethical principles.

Korsakoff's syndrome

Neurological disorder due to lack of thiamine (vit B1) associated with chronic alcoholism. Memory loss, invented memories, lack of insight, apathy.

What brain areas are involved in language?

Wernicke's area: temporal lobe (ability to comprehend speech)

Broca's area: frontal lobe (speech production)

Learning theory of language development

Language is learned from the environment (not based on inherent biological systems) in some manner similar to operant conditioning. Various theories exist about what that manner is.

Locus of control

The extent of which individuals believe they can control events that affect them.

Memory types

Topographic: ability to orient oneself in space, to recognize and follow an itinerary, or to recognize familiar places. Getting lost when traveling alone is an example of the failure of topographic memory.

Flashbulb: clear episodic memories of unique and highly emotional events.

Declarative: requires conscious recall, in that some conscious process must call back the information. It is sometimes called explicit memory, since it consists of information that is explicitly stored and retrieved.

Procedural: not based on the conscious recall of information, but on implicit learning. Procedural memory is primarily employed in learning motor skills and should be considered a subset of implicit memory. It is revealed when one does better in a given task due only to repetition - no new explicit memories have been formed, but one is unconsciously accessing aspects of those previous experiences. Procedural memory involved in motor learning depends on the cerebellum and basal ganglia.


Political philosophy that holds that power should accrue to individuals demonstrating merit as measured by achievement or intellectual talent.

Mirror neurons

Fire when an animal exhibits a behavior and when it observes another carrying out the same behavior, as if the observer were the one acting. Present in both motor and sensory cortical areas.


# of sick people per unit time, usually given per 1000 people per year (e.g., 5/1000 people got sick in 2014)

Nativist theory of language development

Language acquisition must be biologically dependent on native capacity of human brain

Need based theories of motivation

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Positive vs Negative Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement is a reward for doing something well.

Negative reinforcement is a penalty for not doing something.

Neutral stimulus

Stimulus that initially produces no specific response other than focused attention.

When paired with an unconditioned stimulus, neutral stimulus becomes conditioned.

Operant Conditioning

Conditioning in which behaviors are determined by their consequences. It uses reinforcement (positive or negative), whereas classical conditioning shapes reflexive behavior. Example: Going to work everyday to receive a paycheck (positive reinforcement).

Peripheral route processing

A process of shaping attitudes that depend on the environmental characteristics of the message (attractiveness of the speaker, catchy slogan, seeming expertise). Useful when the idea is essentially weak or the audience is unable or unwilling to work to evaluate the merits of the idea.

Piaget's stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor: extends from birth to the acquisition of language; infants progressively construct knowledge and understanding of the world by coordinating experiences (such as vision and hearing) with physical interactions with objects (such as grasping, sucking, and stepping).

Preoperational: starts when the child begins to learn to speak at age two and lasts up until the age of seven. During the Pre-operational Stage of cognitive development, Piaget noted that children do not yet understand concrete logic and cannot mentally manipulate information. Children’s increase in playing and pretending takes place in this stage.

Concrete Operational: occurs between the ages of 7 and 11 (preadolescence) years, and is characterized by the appropriate use of logic. During this stage, a child's thought processes become more mature and "adult like".

Formal Operational: adolescence and into adulthood, roughly ages 11 to approximately 15-20): Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. At this point, the person is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning.

Pineal glad

secretes melatonin

Preoperational stage

Piaget Stage 2: pre-operational. 2-7yrs, child can speak, imagine symbolically, but not carry out mental operations. Ego-centric.

Primary reinforcement

A stimulus that an organism desires with no learning (food, water, etc.)

Psychoanalytic perspective on personality

Personality is developed by early childhood experiences and influenced by the unconscious part of the mind. Freud said personality developes through psychosexual stages.

Reflex arc

Neural pathway in which afferent nerve synapses with efferent nerve in the spinal cord, generating a response while the signal is still being sent up to the brain.

Role taking (stages)

3-6yrs: egocentric role taking, can't distinguish own perspective from others.

6-8yrs: subjective role taking, child can tell that others will have different views based on different information.

8-10 yrs: self-reflective role taking, child understands that others have different values

10-12yrs: mutual role taking, child simultaneously considers his own view and differing views of others

12+yrs: societal role taking, child now considers social and cultural effects on views.

Schachter-Singer theory

Emotions depend on physiological arousal and cognitive label. People use their environment or experience to label why they feel the physiological stimulation they do.


The set of beliefs one has about who one is (gener roles, sexuality, racial identity, etc.)


A belief in one's own ability to achieve goals

Self-fulfilling prophecy in stereotypes

The person's behavior can change to fit a stereotype if the person believes it themselves. A prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true.

Sensitivity index

A measure of how easily a signal can be detected. Estimated as:

d' = Hit Rate - False Alarm Rate

Sensorimotor stage

Piaget's stage 1: infants, toddlers. Knowledge through sensorimotor. Object permanence not yet present.


Rewarding a series of small behaviors that are part of the overall behavior desired in order to create larger behavior which would likely never occur on its own.

Signal detection theory

A mathematical theory for measuring how sensitive people are in spotting stimuli correctly and rejecting false signals correctly.

Social cognitive perspective on personality

Personality is developed through observational learning, situational influences, cognitive processes. Focuses on self-efficacy.

Social cognitive theory

Some portion of people's learning occurs not through direct behavior, but by observing the consequences of the behavior of others. Albert Bandura's theory. Attention, Memory, Imitation, Motivation

Social constructionism

A theory that people construct their sense of reality and meaning through interaction with others, most powerfully through language.

Social facilitation

The presence of other people will increase performance on familiar tasks but reduce performance on unfamiliar ones.

Social loafing

Phenomenon of individuals putting in less effort when working in groups.

Social reproduction

The process of transmitting social inequality to the next generation. Based on differences in financial capital, cultural capital, human capital, and social capital.

Social stratification

A hierarchy of classes of people based on differences in power or privilege. It carries from generation to generation, is present in all societies, and includes beliefs.


The process of acquiring and transmitting cultural norms and customs, developing the social skills for a person to participate in society.

Somatoform disorders

Mental disorder that creates physical symptoms that cannot be explained by an actual medical condition. Includes Conversion, Somatization, Hypochondriasis, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Pain Disorder.

Spontaneous recovery

After a behavior has extinguished, a conditioned stimulus may once again elicit a conditioned response after a rest period.

Stages of sleep

Stage 1: Drowsy sleep, transition from alpha to theta waves

Stage 2: Conscious awareness gone, theta waves

Stage 3: Slow-wave sleep/Deep sleep, delta waves

REM: dreaming, muscle paralysis

Stereotype threat

Anxiety that one will fulfill a negative sterotype causing decreased performance.

Symbolic interactionism

Symbolic interactionism holds that reality is a social convention that society agrees upon.


Releases calcitonin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine

Trait perspective of personality

Personality is made up of a number of traits that are heavily influenced by biology. Various theories. "Big Five" theory:

1. extraversion

2. neuroticism

3. openness to experience

4. conscientiousness

5. agreeableness

Universal emotions







Variable interval

Reinforcement after the first response, after a variable time has elapsed (e.g. after a food pellet is dispensed, there is some changing period of time during which no food pellets will be dispensed. After that time is up, the first lever press will get a food pellet).

Variable ratio

Reinforcement after some changing number of responses (e.g. a food pellet after a changing number of lever presses).

Vestibular sense

The labyrinth of the inner ear provides a sense of spatial orientation, sense of balance, and sense of movement.

Vicarious emotions

When an observer feels the same emotion that someone being observed would feel (e.g. embarrassment when someone else commits a social faux pas).

Vygotsky and development

Theorized that play is essential in a child's development. Children learn symbolic play (using a stick to pretend it's a horse) and learn social rules through play (e.g. playing house to simulate acceptable social interactions).

Weber's law

States that the ability to distinguish between two physical stimuli depends on a proportional increase in that stimulus (heavier of two masses, louder of two sounds, etc). For example, a person can tell one mass is heavier than another if there is a 10% increase between them.


The study of intersections between forms or systems of oppression, domination or discrimination. An example is black feminism, which argues that the experience of being a black woman cannot be understood in terms of being black, and of being a woman, considered independently, but must include the interactions, which frequently reinforce each other.

What is a meritocracy?

Merit-based method of obtaining social position in society.

Differences between rods and cones.

Rods are off when light is present. Rods contain rhodopsin, which contains retinal. Rods detect black/white, while cones detect red green and blue.

What is the Parvo pathway involved in?

Form of objects - Spatial features of objects (physical features), temporal resolution, colors

What is the Magno pathway involved in?

Motion - high temporal resolution, poor spatial resolution of objects. No color detection.

During which state of consciousness are specific brain waves active?

Beta: consciousness

Alpha: daydreaming (light meditation)

Theta: drowsiness

Broadbent's Early Selection Theory

Sensory info is selectively filtered and then perceptually identified before passed to consciousness.

Deutsch and Deutsch's Late Selection Theory

Selective filter in brain decides what to pass on to consciousness.

Treisman's Attenuation Theory

Attenuator filters stimuli before perceptual processing. The stimuli is weakened, not selectively filtered (it's attenuated). If unattended stimulus is important, it won't be filtered out.

What factors affect multitasking ability?

1) task similarity

2) task difficulty

3) practice

Define "heuristic"

Any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical methodology not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals. Example is Availability Heuristic.

What is Universalism as it relates to language?

The idea that thought precedes language.

Linguistic Determinism

Language determines thought (opposite of Universalism)

Theories of Language Development

1) Nativist/Innatist: critical period from birth to ~9yrs where the Language Acquisition Device is most active.

2) Learning Reinforcement

3) Interactionist: biological + social

In which hemispheres are positive/negative emotions dominant?

Left: positive; Right: negative

What does progesterone do?

Blocks LH and GnRH release.

Describe the Id, Ego and Superego.

The id is the impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts. The id demands immediate satisfaction and when this happens we experience pleasure, when it is denied we experience ‘unpleasure’ or pain. The id is not affected by reality, logic or the everyday world.

The ego develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. It is the decision making component of personality. Ideally the ego works by reason whereas the id is chaotic and totally unreasonable.

The superego's function is to control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression. It also has the function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection.

Trait Theory

Defines personality by patterns of behavior. Description-based.

What is Functionalism?

Society moves toward equilibrium.

Theories of Selective Attention

Broadbent's Early Selection Theory; Deutsch and Deutsch's Late Selection Theory; Treisman's

Type 1 error

The incorrect rejection of a null hypothesis (a "false positive") that is actually true.

Type 2 error

Incorrect acceptance of a null hypothesis (a "false negative") that is actually false.

Wernicke's area vs Broca's area

Wernicke: associated with the processing of words that we hear being spoken, or language inputs.

Broca: associated with the production of language, or language outputs.

Meissner corpuscle

Type of nerve ending in the skin that is responsible for sensitivity to light touch.

Merkel receptor

Provide information on pressure, position, and deep static touch features such as shapes and edges.

Mechanoreceptors that are found in the basal epidermis and hair follicles. They are classified as slowly adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They are large, myelinated nerve endings.

Pacinian corpuscle

Responsible for sensitivity to vibration and pressure.

Ruffini's corpuscle

Slowly adapting mechanoreceptor sensitive to skin stretch; contributes to the kinesthetic sense and control of finger position and movement.


Sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

Rational choice-exchange theory

Everything people do is rational. We determine the cost and benefits of actions and what the net outcome is to determine the value of a possible action. Three assumptions:

1) Every action can be ranked. No two actions are equal.

2) Actions can be linearly ranked (best, good, worst).

3) The ranking of actions isn't subjective. If a new action possibility is presented, the existing possibilities do not change in value. The new possibility simply gets ranked.

Types of Stressors

1) Major Life Event: major change in course of life (death of loved one, moving away from home, etc.)

2) Catastrophic Events: major events that cause harm or negative outcomes (hurricane, health problem, etc.).

3) Daily Hassles: waiting on line, forgetting keys, late to work, etc.)

4) Ambient: environmental stressors (pollution, noise, crowds, etc.) that can subconsciously affect us.

Stress Coping/Management Methods

1) Perceived Control: gain or regain control.

2) Optimism

3) Social Support

4) Exercise

5) Meditation

6) Religious beliefs/faith

7) Cognitive Flexibility (try another approach to deal with stress; change in behavior through understanding a limitation or other buffer).

Behavioral Effects of Stress

Glucocorticoids hyperactive, damage to hippocampus and cortex, depression, learned helplessness, anger, anxiety, fear, addiction (alcohol, hard drugs, etc.), impaired judgement.

Reciprocal determinism

A person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment. (developed by Bandura)

Locus of control

1) Internal: using oneself as a reason for a result (bad exam score resulting from not studying enough).

2) External: external factors cause a result (exam was unfair).

Components of Prejudice

1) Stereotypes

2) Affective component (e.g. anger)

3) Discrimination

Authoritarian Personality

1) Obedient to superiors

2) Somewhat oppressive to those beneath them

3) Stubborn views

Frustration Aggression Hypothesis

Frustration leads to aggression by venting against a minority or inferior group.

Just World Hypothesis

People have a strong desire or need to believe that the world is an orderly, predictable, and just place, where people get what they deserve.

The Halo Effect

Essentially, your overall impression of a person ("He is nice!") impacts your evaluations of that person's specific traits ("He is also smart!"). The opposite of this is called the "Devil Effect."

In Group vs Outgroup

The central hypothesis of social identity theory is that group members of an in-group will seek to find negative aspects of an out-group, thus enhancing their self-image

Harlow monkey experiment

Baby monkies separated from mother at young age. Mock mothers providing either food or comfort were presented. The monkies chose comfort over food.

Primary vs Secondary Groups

Primary: close friends/family

Secondary: acquaintances, goal-oriented relationships (professional)

Visuospatial Sketchpad

Responsible for the manipulation and temporary storage of visual and spatial information.

Spreading Activation

A method for searching associative networks, neural networks, or semantic networks.

Serial Position Effect

Tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst.

Levels of Processing Effect

Memory recall of stimuli is a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis.

Primacy effect

When given a list of information and later asked to recall that information, the items at the beginning (primacy) and the items at the end (recency) are more likely to be recalled than the items in the middle.

Recency effect

When given a list of information and later asked to recall that information, the items at the beginning (primacy) and the items at the end (recency) are more likely to be recalled than the items in the middle.

Interference effect

Interference occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material.

1) Proactive interference: past memories prevent an individual from retaining new memories.

2) Retroactive interference: occurs when newly learned information interferes with and impedes the recall of previously learned information.

Confirmation bias

Tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions, leading to statistical errors.


Lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group.

Spearman's idea of general intelligence

According to Spearman, this g factor was responsible for overall performance on mental ability tests.Those who hold this view believe that intelligence can be measured and expressed by a single number, such as an IQ score.

Binet's idea of mental age

It looks at how a specific child at a specific age performs intellectually, compared to average intellectual performance for that physical age, measured in years.

Latent learning

Learning without using the information until required to do so. Example: a dog is taught to sit but does not do so until offered a treat as a reward.