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53 Cards in this Set
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Clinical Study or Trial

A study concerned with determining whether a single variable or treatment (usually a vaccine, drug, therapy, etc.) can cause a certain effect (a disease, a cure, a symptom, etc.)


Quota Sample

The systematic effort for the sample to be representative of the population by forcing the proportion of various groups in the sample to match the proportions of these groups in the population.


Stratified Sample

A subgroup of the population that is picked by first dividing the population into groups of like individuals (homogeneous groups) and then picking a random sample from each of these homogeneous groups.


Control Group

The subjects in a study who receive no treatment.


Blind Study

Research in which the subjects do not know if they are in either the treatment or the control group.


Population

The whole group of individuals or objects a study or statistical statement refers to. “N” of the number of individuals or objects.


Simple Random Sample

A subgroup of the population in which every individual in the population has the same chance of being picked for the subgroup.


Placebo Effect

The results that are caused by the subjects’ beliefs that they are getting a treatment when, in fact, they are not.


Sampling Variability

This is caused by the fact that different samples will give different statistics.


Convenient Sample

A subgroup of the population that is picked because these individuals are the easiest for the data collector to contact.


Sampling Rate or Sampling Proportion

The ratio of the sample size to the population size.


Treatment Group

The group of subjects that the researcher does something to (administers a drug, has individuals participate in a particular therapy, etc.)


Parameter

A number that comes from a population.


Response Rate

The proportion of the sample that responds.


Double Blind

Research in which neither the subjects nor the data collectors know who is in the treatment and control groups.


Controlled Study

Research in which one group receives a placebo rather than the treatment.


Sample

A subgroup of the population.


Confounding Variables

Things that might confuse the outcome of the study because they often influence the response variable or the data being collected.


Statistic

A number that comes from a sample.


Survey

The process of collecting data from a subgroup of the population.


Nonresponse Bias

This is what a survey suffers from when the response rate is low.


Sampling Frame

The subset of the population or a list of the entire population (if N isn’t too large) from which the sample is drawn.


Census

The process of collecting data from every member of the population.


Data

The information gathered in research.


Randomized Controlled Study

Research in which the subjects are randomly placed into treatment and control groups.


Sampling Error

The difference between the statistic and parameter of a population.


Volunteer Sample

A sample that is always biased and unreliable.


1/16

The probability of getting 4 heads when tossing 4 coins.


15/16

The probability of not getting 4 heads when tossing 4 coins.


Statistic

Word that describes a number that comes from a sample.


Simple random sample

Type of sample in which everyone in the population has an equal chance of being in the sample.


Doubleblind experiment

Type of experiment in which neither the subjects nor the treatment administrator knows who is in the treatment or who is in the control group.


Parameter

The word for the number that comes from the population.


Mode

Item of data that occurs most often.


2

The number that completes this statement. In a normal distribution, 95% of the population falls within ___ standard deviations of the mean.


1

The standardized score for the 16th %ile.


1

The odds in favor of getting heads when tossing a coin.


5

The odds against getting a 3 when rolling one die.


Histogram

Graph that is used with grouped data.


Relative frequency

Term used to describe the proportion as in 11 out of 25 or 11/25 of the class got A’s.


Boxplot

A graph that uses a rectangular box that extends from Quartile 1 (Q1) to Quartile 3 (Q3) with a vertical line at the median. Good comparing similar data & for use with "outliers". "Whiskers" extend to the min and the max outliers on the graph.


50%

Proportion represented by the box in a boxplot.


75th %ile

Percentile that is the third quartile.


10/100

Probability that if there are 10 tickets with the word “winner” in a box of 100 tickets that the first one picked will have “winner” on it.


9/99

Probability that if the first ticket picked was a winner that the second one will also be a winner.


Sampling error

Term that describes the Mathematical difference between the statistic and the parameter.


The 84th %ile

Percentile that is the standardized score of 1.


Placebo

Term that describes the sugar pills that are sometimes given to subjects in an experiment.


Control

The group that is given the placebo.


Symmetric

Word that describes the shape of the Normal Distribution.


Confounding

Type of variables that confuse the results of an experiment.


Volunteer sample

Sample that is biased and unreliable.


2.5 %ile

Percentile that corresponds with the standardized score of 2.
