• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


time women is in labor


after baby and placenta has been delivered

Naegele's rule

day of last menstraual period, add one year, subtracts three months and adds seven days

estimated date of confinement

number of days in gestational period

280 days

how many trimesters

three thirteen week trimesters


pregnancy terms - number of times she has ever been pregnant


number of births after 20 weeks- includes still borns


G is number of pregnancies including current pregnancy

T- Term-number of pregnancies delivered at 37 weeks or later

P-Preterm-number of pregnancies delivered between 20 and 37 weeks

A-Abortion-number of pregnancies ending in spontaneous or therapeutic abortion

L- living-number of currently living children

changes that occur in pregnancy that are subjective- can be caused by other conditions beside pregnancy

amenorrhea, nausea and vomiting, excessive fatigue, urinary frequency, breast changes, quickening- from 16-20 weeks after last menstrual period- baby movement

objective changes during pregnancy

changes in pelvic organs (chadwicks sign making it bluish/ purpleish)(hagers sign-softening of cervix), enlargement of abdomen, braxton hicks, abdominal striae, uterine souffle (auscultation of maternal pulse through uterine arteries), changes in skin pigmentation (darkening of melanin in face) (darkening of line from abdomen to pubis), ballottement, positive pregnancy test (just confirms HCG produced from placenta) (can be false positive)

hemagglutination-inhibition test

pregnancy test- use urine which is added to HCG sensitivezed RBC and if HCG is in urine, then clumping of cells is inhibited

can be done 4-10 days after missed period

latex agglutination test

pregnancy test- same thing as hemagglutination -inhibition test, but done with latex instead of HCG


pregnancy test- have increased accuracy of pregnancy tests- detect pregnancy 8 days after ovulation


radioactive medical waste

home pregnancy tests use...

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

false negative results are more common than false positive

marijuana, methodone, aspirin can all cause false positive

hormonal changes in menopause and tumors can cause false positive

false negative are due to low levels of HCG

- should repeat it one week after first test

how do pregnancy tests work

antigen-antibody response

hcg is antigen in urine- hcg binds to the implanted antibodies

test region contains anti hcg antibodies- bind on stick and changes color of stick

control area changes stick color to show antibodies are doing what they should and test is behaving appropriately

positive signs of pregnancy

auscultation of fetal heart beat (10-12 weeks), fetal movement (20 weeks), visualization of fetus (ultrasound, 4-5 weeks, vaginal is 10 days after implantation)

uterus changes

pre pregnancy is 2 ounces, at the end is 2 pounds.

enlargement from hypertrophy

braxton hicks is irregular or intermittent tightening to fill blood in spaces

cervical changes

mucous plug develops, hegar's sign- softening of isthmus

goodell's- softening of cervix

chadwick's sign- bluish/ purple discoloration

vaginal changes

estrogen induced changes, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, acidic pH helps with bacterial infections, loosening of supportive tissue.

basal metabolism in pregnancy

oxygen increases and therefore respiratory alkalosis occurs to compensate for this

cardiovascular changes

blood volume increases 40-50%, decrease of impact of blood loss after delivery, blood composition changes to more red blood cells (vitamin supplements helps this), plasma volume increases more than red blood cells though (technically this is physiologic anemia)

hemoglobin is 12

37-44for hematocrit (amount of space red blood cells take up)

blood pressure adapts so there is not an increase in blood pressure even though there is a larger volume of blood

postural hypotension

more prone during pregnancy. can also lead to lower extremity edema

kidney changes

glomerulo filtration rate increases a lot

increased flow and volume, decreased buin and creatine levels, increased volume of blood

some drugs might be at a subtherapeutic level

sugar in urine is common

increased susceptibility to urinary infection

skin changes


lineanegra- darkening of line from umbilicus to pubis

chloasma- darkening patches on face and extremities

vascular spider nevi- from increased blood flow

stretch marks

hair changes- hair feels thicker- rate of hair growth decreases and resting phase prolongs

excellerated sweat and sebaceous glands- more acne


causes ligaments and joints to relax in order to facilitate delivery of baby

center of gravity changes

lumbar spine changes causing sway back and shoulder, neck, and upper extremity discomfort

rubin's tasks of pregnancy

ensuring safe passage through pregnancy, labor, and birth

seeking of acceptance of this child by others

seeking of commitment and acceptance of self as mother to the infant

learning to give of oneself on behalf of one's child


physical changes of father during pregnancy


establish gestational age, fetal life, fetal number, fetal presentation and anatomy, amniotic fluid index, placental position, evaluate cervix and uterus

can see cervix and uterus to see if there are any problems.

can determine crown rump measurement

fetal activity (fetal cardiac movement)

Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein

secreted by fetal liver and secreted into mother's blood

elevated in neural tube defects

nuchal translucency on transvaginal ultrasonography

can show down's syndrome if abnormalities in neck region (fluid filled sack)

15-20 weeks of pregnancy


metabolic disorders, genetic testing, embryonic cells, chromosomes, blood typing

invasive- risk for infection- slight risk of spontaneous abortion

chorionic villus sampling

piece of chorionic villus

10-12 weeks.

if done earlier, short limb syndrome can happen

genetic abnormality testing

alpha fetal protein is not obtainable so can't test neural tube defects

nonstress test

accelerations of heart beat imply intact CNS

without stress being placed- if there are two or more fetal heart rate accelerations is normal

contraction stress test

evaluates uteral placental function

placenta is lungs of baby in utero

identifies hypoxia of baby

if fetus is compromised, FHR decreases with contraction

negative contraction stress test

good. late or variable decelerations

biophysical profile

nonstress test and an ultra sound

nonstress is looking at CNS fetal heart rate accelerations

ultrasound has four sections- fetal breathing, movements, tone, amniotic fluid volume (tells us if kidneys are working)