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348 Cards in this Set

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A number of persons joined together by bonds of marriage, blood or adoption (Burgess, 1963)

Family

A group of people related by blood, marriage or adoption living together (US Census Bureau, 2005)

Family

5 alternative family forms

1. Gay or lesbian family


2. Foster family


3. Single parent family


4. Cohabitation family


5. Communal family

Homosexual union for companionship, financial security and sexual fulfillment

Gay or lesbian family

Children whose parents can no longer care for them placed in a foster or substitute home by a child protection agency

Foster family

Either father or mother with child/children

Single parent family

Composed of heterosexual couples who live together like a nuclear family but remain unmarried

Cohabitation family

A temporary family form

Cohabitation family

Comprises groups of people who have chosen to live together as an extended family

Communal family

Their relationship to each other is motivated by social or religious values rather than kinship (Benokraitus, 2005)

Communal family

6 family functions

1. Physical


2. Health care functions


3. Reproductive


4. Affective


5. Socialization


6. Economic

Carried out by providing a safe, comfortable environment necessary for growth, development, rest, recuperation

Physical

Provision of physical necessities including food, clothing, shelter and healthcare

Health care functions

Continuity over generations

Reproductive

Survival of community

Reproductive

Focus: meeting family members' needs for affection and understanding

Affective

Learning experiences provided within the family to teach children their culture and how to function and assume adult-social role

Socialization

Provision and allocation of sufficient resources

Economic

12 external structures of the female reproductive system

1. Mons pubis


2. Labia majora


3. Labia minora


4. Clitoris


5. Fourchette


6. Perineum


7. Vestibule


8. Skenes gland or Paraurethral gland


9. Hymen


10. Vaginal orifice


11. Bartholin's gland


12. Urinary meatus

Pre-adolescence. No pubic hair. Fine body hair

Stage 1

Occurs between ages 11 and 12 - sparse, long, slightly pigmented and curly hair at symphysis pubis

Stage 2

Occurs between ages 12 and 13

Stage 3

Occurs between ages 13 and 14, hair assumes the normal appearance of an adult but is not so thick and does not appear to the inner aspect of the upper thigh

Stage 4

Sexual maturity; seen among normal adult; appearance of hair at the inner aspect of the upper thigh

Stage 5

Large lips longitudinal fold, extends from the symphysis pubis to the perineum

Labia majora

Anterior, pea shaped erectile tissue with lots of sensitive nerve endings

Clitoris

Site of sexual arousal in female

Clitoris

Posterior, tapers posteriorly of the labia minora

Fourchette

Sensitive to manipulation

Fourchette

Torn during delivery and site of episiotomy

Fourchette

Muscular structure, located between lower vagina and anus

Perineum

An almond shaped area that contains the hymen, vaginal orifice and bartholin's gland

Vestibule

Secretes mucous for lubrication

Skenes gland or paraurethral gland

Covers vaginal orifice, membranous tissue

Hymen

External opening of vagina

Vaginal orifice

Other name for Bartholin's gland

Paravaginal gland or vuvlo vaginal gland

Two small mucous secreting alkaline substance

Bartholin's gland

Small opening of urethra, serves for urination

Urinary meatus

A short, sagittal cleft with slightly raised margins

Urinary meatus

4 internal structures of the female reproductive system

1. Vagina


2. Uterus


3. Ovaries


4. Fallopian tubes

Female organ of copulation

Vagina

Passageway of menstruation and fetus

Vagina

Length of vagina

3-4 inches (8-10 cm)

Part of the vagina that permits stretching without tearing

Rugae

Organ of menstruation

Uterus

Is a hollow, thick walled muscular organ

Uterus

Size of uterus

1 x 2 x 3

Shape of non-pregnant uterus

Pear shaped

Shape of pregnant uterus

Ovoid shaped

Weight of non-pregnant uterus

50 - 60g

Weight of pregnant uterus

1,000g

3 muscular compositions of uterus

1. Endometrium


2. Myometrium


3. Perimetrium

Inside uterus

Endometrium

Lines the non-pregnant uterus

Endometrium

Muscle layer for menstruation

Endometrium

Sloughs during menstruation

Endometrium

Largest part of the uterus

Myometrium

Muscle layer for delivery process

Myometrium

Its smooth muscles are considered to be the living ligature of the body

Myometrium

Power of labor, especially during contraction of the uterus

Myometrium

Protects the entire uterus

Perimetrium

3 muscle fibers in the myometrium

1. Longitudinal


2. Transverse


3. Oblique

Muscle fiber of the myometrium that prevents bleeding

Transverse

Muscle fiber of the myometrium where implantation occurs and placenta attaches

Longitudinal

2 functions of ovaries

1. Ovulation


2. Production of hormones

Length of fallopian tubes

2-3 inches

Serves as a passageway of the sperm from the uterus to the ampulla

Fallopian tubes

Passageway of the mature ovum or fertilized ovum from the ampulla to the uterus

Fallopian tubes

4 significant segments of the fallopian tube

1. Infundibulum


2. Ampulla


3. Isthmus


4. Interstitial

Distal part of fallopian tube, trumpet or funnel shaped, swollen at ovulation

Infundibulum

Outer 3rd or 2nd half; site of fertilization

Ampulla

Site of sterilization or tubal ligation

Isthmus

Site of ectopic pregnancy

Interstitial

2 external structures of male reproductive system

1. Penis


2. Scrotum

The male organ of copulation and urination

Penis

It contains a body of a shaft consisting of 3 cylindrical layers and erectile tissues

Penis

Counterpart of clitoris in male

Glans penis

A pouch hanging below the pendulous penis, with a medial septum dividing into two sacs, each of which contains a testes

Scrotum

Prepubescent (testicular volume less than 1.5 mL; small penis of 3 cm or less)


Typically 9 and younger

Tanner I

Testicular volume between 1.6 and 6ml


Skin on scrotum thins, reddens and enlarges


Penis length unchanged


9-11 years old

Tanner II

Testicular volume between 6 and 12ml


Scrotum enlarges further


Penis begins to lengthen about 6cm


11-12.5 years old

Tanner III

Testicular volume between 12 and 20ml


Scrotum enlarges further and darkens


Penis increases to length to 10 cm and circumference


12.5-14 years old

Tanner IV

Testicular volume greater than 20ml


Adult scrotum and penis of 15cm in length


14+ years old

Tanner V

3 internal structures of male reproductive system

1. Testes


2. Epididymis


3. Vas deferens

Are glands that produce sperm and hormones

Testes

Is a coiled tube that holds sperm while they mature

Epididymis

Carry sperm from the epididymis to the penis

Vas deferens

It helps nourish sperm and carry them along

Semen

7 secondary sex characteristics of male

1. Increase in weight


2. Growth of testes


3. Growth of face, axillary and pubic hair


4. Voice changes


5. Penile growth


6. Increase in height


7. Spermatogenesis

8 secondary sex characteristics of female

1. Growth spurt


2. Increase in the transverse diameter of the pelvis


3. Breast development (thelarche)


4. Growth of pubic hair (adenarche)


5. Onset of menstruation (menarche)


6. Ovulation occurs 1-2 years after menarche


7. Growth of axillary hair (adrenarche)


8. Vaginal secretion

Purpose of menstrual cycle

Bring an ovum to maturity and renew uterine tissue ready for implantation

Average length of menstrual cycle

28 days (beginning of one menstrual flow to the beginning of next)

Average length of mentsrual flow

4-6 days


As short as 2 days


As long as 7 days

4 physiology of menstruation

1. Hypothalamus


2. Putuitary gland


3. Ovaries


4. Uterus

2 hormones produced by pituitary gland

1. Follicular stimulating hormone (FSH)


2. Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Release GnRH (or LHRH) that initiates the menstrual cycle

Hypothalamus

Estrogen + Progesterone =

Ovum

One primodial follicle is activated by FSH

Ovaries/Gonads

An increase in LH from the posterior pituitary gland results to?

Rupture of grafian follicle

Progesterone increase =

1 degree Farenheit

What happens to LH if FSH decreases?

LH increases

Length of survival of egg

Approximately 12 to 24 hours

How many days does implantation occurs after ovulation?

6-10 days

A hormone produced by the embryo to signal its existence

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

When does ovulation occur for a regular cycle

14th day

Length of short cycle

23 days

Length of long cycle

35 days

4 phases of the uterus

1. Proliferative


2. Secretory


3. Ischemic


4. Menses

2 tests for cervical mucus

1. Fern test


2. Spinnbarkeit test

What happens to cervical mucus when ovarian hormones are decreased?

Cervical mucus is thick and scant

What happens to cervical mucus during ovulation?

Cervical mucus is thick and copius

What happens to the cervical mucus in Fern test?

Cervical mucus forms fernlike pattern or ferning

What happens to the cervical mucus in Spinnbarkeit test?

Increase in estrogen = stretchability of cervical mucus

Cessation of menstrual cycle

Menopause

When does menopause occurs?

40-55 years of age

The entire reproductive process of producing off spring

Procreation

Making of all things from nothing, by an act of God, at some time in the past

Creation

The sum of the cellular and genetic phenomena by which organisms produces offspring similar to themselves so that the species is perpetuated

Reproduction

The theory that all things come about by the repeated random actions of natural selection

Evolutionary theory

4 theories related to procreation

1. Christian Theory of Procreation


2. Monogenetic Theory of Procreation


3. Duogenetic Theory of Procreation


4. Theory of Evolution

Man is created in the likeliness of God

Christian Theory of Procreation

Monogenetic Theory of Procreation is also known as

Seminal conception

Men - not men and women - are thought to bring life into this world

Monogenetic Theory of Procreation (Turkish)

View of men literally as creating life vis-a-vis performed fetuses that they carry in their sperm and ejaculate into women's waiting wombs

Monogenetic Theory of Procreation (Egyptian)

Equal contribution of man and woman to the hereditary substance of the fetus, formed through the union of a woman's ovum and man's spermatozoa

Duogenetic Theory of Procreation

Sexual reproduction allows genetic recumbination in order to withstand natural selection and evolve

Theory of Evolution

A four-stage model of physiological responses during sexual stimulation

Human sexual response

4 phases of human sexual response

1. Excitement phase


2. Plateau phase


3. Orgasmic phase


4. Resolution phase

Excitement phase is also known as

Arousal or initial excitement phase

Period of sexual excitement prior to orgasm

Plateau phase

11 erogenous zones

1. Clitoris


2. Point G/G spot


3. Mouth


4. Ears


5. Neck and clavicle


6. Chest (areola and nipple)


7. Armpits


8. Abdomen


9. Arms


10. Fingers


11. Feet and toes

Ovum is also known as

Gamete/egg/egg cell

What does the ovum carry?

Half cargo (human DNA)

Formation of female gametes (ova)

Oogenesis

When does oogenesis start?

During fetal life

2 layers of ovum

1. Corona radiata


2. Zona pellucida

Outer layer of ovum

Corona radiata

Inner layer of ovum

Zona pellucida

Sperm is also known as

Spermatozoa/gametes/sperm cell

Development of spermatozoa during prenatal period and begin multiplying by meiotic division during puberty

Spermatogenesis

How many sperm cells are formed from a single germ cell?

4

How many sperms are released per ejaculation?

200-600 millions

How many sperms are needed to form an inch in length?

500 sperms

3 parts of the sperm

1. Head


2. Mid-piece


3. Tail

Part of the sperm that contains chromatin materials

Head

Part of the sperm that provides energy for movement

Mid-piece

Responsible for the motility of sperm

Tail

Process of removal of the glycoprotein and seminal proteins from the acrosome of the sperm

Capacitation

Enzyme that digests the pathway of the sperm

Hyaluronidase

Prevents other sperm to enter

Zona pellucida

After fertilization, what is formed?

Zygote

The zygote first divides into two identical cells called

Blastomeres

After blastomere, what is next?

Morulla

About 3 days after conception, the zygote now consists of how many cells?

16 cells and is called a 16 cell morulla (pre-embryo)

A cavity appears in the center of the morulla. The grouping of cells are now called

Blastocyst

The cells inside of the blastocyst

Embryoblast

Outer cells

Trophoblast

It starts to form the placenta

Trophoblast

Starts to form the embryo

Embryoblast

3 layers of the embryo

1. Ectoderm


2. Mesoderm


3. Endoderm

Brain and spinal cord, PNS, pituitary gland...

Ectoderm

Cartilage, bone, connective tissue, muscle tissue, heart, blood vessels, blood cells, lymphatic system...

Mesoderm

Lining of the GI and respiratory tract, tonsils, thyroid....

Endoderm

Implantation is also known as

Nidation

Burrowing of the developing zygote into the endometrial lining of the uterus

Implantation/Nidation

How many days does implantation occurs?

6-7 days after fertilization

The medical definition of the start of pregnancy is about how many days?

10 days after conception

3 types of twins

1. Monozygotic


2. Dizygotic


3. Conjoined

Identical twins result from a single sperm/ovum pair that subdivides after conception

Monozygotic

Fraternal twins result from independent conceptions of two ovum/sperm pairs

Dizygotic

Length of pregnancy in days

267-280

Length of pregnancy in weeks

40 (plus or minus 2 weeks)

Length of pregnancy in lunar months

10

Length of pregnancy in calendar months

9

Length of pregnancy in trimesters

3

Nagele's Rule

Calculate date of birth


(Count backward 3 calendar months from the first day of LMP and add 7 days)

Used to determine age of gestation by measuring from the fundus (obtaining the fundal height) to the symphysis pubis

McDonald's Rule

This method estimates the age of gestation relative to the height of the fundus of the uterus above the symphysis pubis

Bartholomew's Rule of Fourths

By 3rd lunar month (12 weeks), the fundus is slightly palpable above the?

Symphysis pubis

By the 5th lunar month (20 weeks), the fundus is palpable at the level of the?

Umbilicus

On the 9th lunar month, the fundus is at the level of the?

Xiphoid process

Is used to estimate the weight of the fetus in grams

Johnson's Rule

Formula for Johnson's Rule

(Fundic height in cm - n) k

Value of k in Johnson's rule

155

Value of n in Johnson's rule

Engaged: 12


Not yet engaged: 11

A rough method of calculating the age of the fetus by measuring the crown to heel length of the fetus in cm

Rule of Haase

Formula for Rule of Haase during the first 5 months

Square root of length

Formula for Rule of Haase during the last 5 months

Length divided by 5

Gas exchange in fetal circulation

Placenta

Carry unoxygenated blood from fetus to placenta

Arteries

Carry oxygenated blood to the fetus

Vein

Shunts blood from RA to LA to supply blood to brain, heart, kidneys

Foramen ovale

Supplies blood to liver thereby bypassing fetal liver

Ductus venosus

Shunts blood away from lungs directly to the aorta

Ductus arteriosus

4 auxillary structures of the fetus

1. Membranes


2. Amniotic fluid


3. Umbilical cord


4. Placenta

2 parts of the membrane

1. Chorionic membrane (chorion)


2. Amniotic membrane (amnion)

Encloses the fetus and amniotic fluid

Membranes

Protects the fetus from bacterial infection

Membranes

Originates from chorionic villi, is thick, opaque and friable and supports the amniotic membrane

Chorionic membrane

A smooth, thin, tough and translucent membrane directly enclosing the fetus and the amniotic fluid

Amniotic membrane

Covers the fetal surface of the placenta and umbilical cord

Amniotic membrane

How many ml is the amniotic fluid?

500-1,200 ml (1,000ml)

Composition of amniotic fluid

99% water and 1% solid particles

pH of amniotic fluid

7.0-7.25

6 functions of the amniotic fluid

1. Protects the fetus from trauma and pressure


2. Allows freedom of movement


3. Acts as exceetion and secretion system


4. Maintains constant temperature


5. Aids in diagnosis of maternal and fetal complications


6. Provides lubrication during birth

Length and diameter of umbilical cord

50-55cm long and 2cm diameter

A gelatinous substance found inside the cord

Wharton's jelly

3 blood vessels of the umbilical cord

2 umbilical arteries


1 umbilical vein

3 functions of the umbilical cord

1. Connects the fetus from the placenta


2. Carry oxygen and nutrient from the placenta to the fetus


3. Returns unoxygenated blood and fetal waste products to the placenta

4 cord insertion

1. Central insertion


2. Lateral insertion


3. Battledore insertion


4. Velamentous insertion

The cord is inserted at the center of the fetal surface of the placenta

Central insertion

Inserted away from the center of the placenta but not at its edges

Lateral insertion

Cord is inserted at the edge of the placenta

Battledore insertion

When the cord is inserted in the membranes away from the edge of the placenta

Velamentous insertion

Too much amniotic fluid

Polyhydramnios

First feces of baby

Meconium

A thick, disk-shaped organ formed from the chorionic villi and attached to the decidua basalis

Placenta

2 types of placenta

Duncan


Schultze

4 functions of placenta

1. Produces some nutrients needed by the embryo and its own functions


2. Serves as exchange of oxygen, nutrients and waste products


3. Transfer needed antibodies


4. Secretes several hormones for normal pregnancy

Absence of menstruation

Amenorrhea

Painless contractions and occurs during 5 months and above

Braxton Hick's contractions

Softening of the lower uterine segment

Hegar's sign

What happens in the uteroplacental blood flow?

Blood flow increases (500ml/min from 15-20ml/min)

Softening of cervix brought about by increased vascularity, slight hypertrophy and hyperplasia

Goodel's Sign

Tenacious mucus plug that fills the cervical canal

Operculum

Acts to seal out bacteria during pregnancy

Operculum

Thinning of cervix

Effacement

Darkening of vaginal walls and labia from a pale pink to violet hue due to increased vascularity

Chadwick's sign

Increase in epithelial and cervical mucous

Leukorrhea

This part of the breast enlarges and becomes protuberant

Montgomrey tubercles

High protein fluid that can be expelled from the nipple at about 16 weeks AOG

Colostrum

Pink to reddish streaks appearing on the sides of the abdominal wall and sometimes the thighs

Striae gravidarum

A narrow brown line from umbilicus to the symphysis pubis is known as

Linea nigra

Darkened areas on the face and neck

Chloasma

Redness and/or itchiness of the palms or soles of the feet

Palmar erythema

Tiny red elevations branching in all directions that appear most often in the neck, face, upper chest and arms

Spider nevi/Spider angioma

How many bpm is increased in heart rate of a pregnant?

10 bpm

Occurs due to the weight of the uterus which compresses the vena cava, trapping the blood in the lower extremities

Supine hypotension

Additional endocrine gland

Placenta

Inhibits uterine contractility and prevention of spontaneous abortion

Progesterone

Secreted by trophoblast cells of the placenta

hCG

Antagonist to insulin which allows glucose to become more available for fetal

Human Placental Lactogen (hPL)

Human Placental Lactogen (hPL) is also known as

Human chorionic somatomamotropin

Inhibits uterine activity

Relaxin

RR of pregnant

16-24 breaths per min

Temperature of pregnant

Slightly increase

Recommended weight gain of mother

11.2-15.9kg (23-35lbs)

Accepting the pregnancy

First trimester

"I am pregnant": Self as primary focus not the fetus

First trimester

Accepting the baby

Second trimester

Fetus is "real"

Second trimester

Preparing for parenthood

Third trimester

"I am going to become a mother"

Third trimester

"Nest-building" activities such as buying baby clothes

Third trimester

Intervention for breast tenderness

Wear bra with wide shoulder strap

Calamine lotion is for?

Pruritis

Intervention for nausea and vomitting

Eat dry crackers or toast every 2 hours to avoid empty stomach or SFF

Term for heartburn

Pyrosis

2 interventions for relieving muscle cramps

1. Warm compress


2. Apply gentle massage

Intervention for varicosity

Wear support hose or elastic stockings

How is Kegel's exercsie done?

Contract muscles of vagina for 10 seconds and relax for 10 seconds; repeat contractions for 30 times/day

3 exercises for backache

1. Tailor sitting


2. Shoulder circling


3. Pelvic rocking

4 methods of pain management

1. Bradley/Partner coached method


2. Psychosexual method


3. Dick-read method


4. Lamaze method

Childbirth is a joyful natural process

Bradley/Partner coached method

Pregnancy, labor and birth and the early newborn period are important part of a woman's life cycle

Psychosexual method

"Flowing with" the contraction

Psychosexual method

Fear leads to tension, which leads to pain

Dick-read method

Gating control theory of pain relief

Lamaze method

Series of events by which uterine contractions and abdominal pressure expels the fetus, placenta, and membrane

Labor

Enlargement of the cervical os from an orifice a few milimeters in size to an aperture large to permit the passage of the fetus

Dilation

A mucoid discharge from the cervix that is present after the mucous plug has been discharged

Show

From the end of one contraction to the beginning of the next contraction

Interval

From the beginning of one contraction to its completion

Duration

Progressive thinning and shortening of the cervix

Effacement

Settling of the fetal head into the pelvis

Engagement

6 theories of labor onset

1. Uterine stretch theory


2. Oxytocin theory


3. Increased fetal cortisol level


4. Prostaglanding theory


5. Progesterone deprivation theory


6. Theory of aging placenta

Occurs 10-14 days before onset of labor

Lightening

Texture of cervix during true labor

Butter soft

Contraction during false labor

Irregular


Often disappear with ambulation and sleep


Do not increase in duration, intensity or frequency

Contraction during true labor

Irregular to regular


Continue no matter what the activity


Progression in duration, intensity and frequency

Pain/discomfort during false labor

Felt in abdomen and groin


Relieved by ambulation

Pain/discomfort during true labor

Begins at the lower back and sweeps around to lower abdomen


Not relieved by ambulation

Cervical dilation during false labor

No significant change

Cervical dilation during true labor

Progressive effacement and dilation

3 signs of true labor

1. Uterine contraction


2. Bloody show


3. Rupture of membranes

5 P's of labor

Passageway


Passenger


Powers


Psyche


Position

Route a fetus must travel from the uterus to the cervix and vagina to the external perineum

Passageway

4 Compositions of the passageway of the fetus

1. Ilium


2. Ischium


3. Pubis


4. Sacrum

4 types of pelvis

1. Gynecoid


2. Platypelloid


3. Android


4. Anthropoid

Best type of pelvis for giving birth

Gynecoid

It is the male pelvis and is heart-shaped

Android

Female pelvis shape in order

Gynecoid (50)


Anthropoid (25)


Android (20)


Platypelloid (5)

2 pelvic measurements

1. Diagonal conjugate


2. Transverse conjugate

Distance between the midpoint of the sacral promontory to the lower margin of the symphysis pubis

Diagonal conjugate

Length of diagonal conjugate

11.5 cm or greater

Distance between the midpoint of the sacral promontory to the midline of the symphysis pubis

Obstetric conjugate

Distance between the midpoint promontory to the upper margin of the symphysis pubis

True conjugate

Length of obstetric conjugate

10 cm (subtract 1.5-2 from DC)

Legth of true conjugate

Subtract 1.5 cm less than DC

Length of transverse diameter

13.5 cm

Length of interspinous diameter

10.5 cm

Membrane-filled spaces

Fontanelles

Anterior fontanelle is also known as

Bregma

When does anterior fontanelle close?

12-18 months of age

Shape of anterior fontanelle

Diamond-shaped

Shape of posterior fontanelle

Triangular shape

Where does the posterior fontanelle lie?

Between the lambdoidal and sagittal sutures

When does the posterior fontanelle close?

2-3 months of age

Area over the frontal bone

Sinicput/brow

Area between the 2 fontanelles

Vertex

Area over the occipital bone

Occiput

Overlapping of the bones which permits adaptations to the various diameters of the maternal pelvis

Molding

Allow cranial bones to move and overlap, molding or diminishing the size of the skull to pass through the birth canal

Suture lines

Relationship of the long axis of the fetus to the long axis of mother

Fetal lie

2 types of fetal lie

1. Longitudinal


2. Transverse

Degree of flexion a fetus assumes during labor or relation of the fetal parts to each other

Fetal attitude

3 types of fetal attitude

1. Complete flexion


2. Moderate flexion


3. Partial flexion

The fetal part that enters the pelvis first

Fetal presentation

How is fetal presentation determined?

Combination of fetal lie and attitude

3 fetal presentations

1. Cephalic


2. Breech


3. Shoulder

3 types of breech

1. Frank breech


2. Complete breech


3. Footling breech

What is PROM?

Premature rupture of membranes

Relationship of the presenting part to a specific quadrant of the maternal pelvis

Fetal position

4 fetal landmarks to describe the relationship of the presenting part to the pelvic quadrant

1. Occiput (vertex)


2. Mentum (face)


3. Sacrum (breech)


4. Scapula or acromium process (shoulder)

Describes the position of the presenting part in relation to the level of the ischial spine

Station

Station of crowning

+3 to +4

Station of an engaged fetus

0

6 mechanism of labor (cardinal movements)

1. Descent


2. Flexion


3. Internal rotation


4. Extension


5. External rotation


6. Expulsion

Downward movement of the biparietal diameter of the fetal head within the pelvic inlet

Descent

Settling of the presenting part of the fetus for enough into the pelvis to be at the level of the ischial spine

Flexion

Flexion of the head as it meets resistance from the soft tissues of the pelvis

Internal rotation

Head bends forward to present the smallest anteroposterior diameter to the birth canal

Internal rotation

Occurs as a result of negotiation of the fetal head to the curve of the pelvis

Extension

Rotation of the head, immediately after it is born, back to the diagonal or transverse position

External rotation

Complete birth of the body

Expulsion

2 powers of labor

1. Primary power (involuntary contractions)


2. Secondary power (bearing down)

Psychological state or feelings that a woman brings into labor

Psyche

Common position of mother during labor

Lithotomy position

Begins with onset of true labor contractions and ends with complete dilation and effacement of the cervix

First stage

Begins from full cervical dilation to fetal expulsion

Second stage

Begins from expulsion of the baby to placental expulsion

Third stage

4 signs of placental separation

1. Lengthening of umbilical cord


2. Sudden gush of blood


3. Change in shape of uterus


4. Appearance of placenta at vaginal opening

Normal blood loss

300 to 500 ml

Begins from the delivery of placenta to the first 1-2 hours after birth

Fourth stage

3 lochia discharges

1. Rubra (1-3)


2. Serosa (4-10)


3. Alba (11-21)

Bloody red, small clots and fleshy earth odor

Rubra

Pink or brown lochia

Serosa

Creamy, yellowish lochia

Alba