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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Importance of Advertising

- Informs consumers about products and services

-Contributes to prosperity by inspiring productivity

-Provides efficient, effective way to reach consumers

William Caxton

First English person to work as a printer.

Introduced the printing press to England.

First printed flyer ad in 1468

Benjamin Day

Introduced The New York Sun, the first penny press newspaper. Found that lowering price to a penny would increase readership

Wayland Ayer

Founded N.W Ayer & Son.

Advertising pioneer.

Revolutionized the industry bu making the advertising firm an active agent for the advertiser.

Advertising Agencies

Central in modern advertising, agencies create and place ads on behalf of their clients. They are funded by the media in which they place ads.

Agency People

Creative Director - creates, copy, graphics, and layout

-Account Executive-Liasion for clients and creative staff

-Media Buyer- places ads

-Researcher- Generates information on target customers

Major Media Vehicles

-Newspapers- tangible, taken seriously, short lead time, short shelf life

-Magazines- tangible, taken seriously, long lead time, extended shelf life, slick context for ads

Major Media Vehicles

-Radio- narrow audience targets, no visual image, no shelf life

-TV- impact on diverse audience, expensive, high ad clutter, hard to target

Web- Inexpensive, space for lots of information, limited to people with computers

Importance of Brands

Jolly Green Giant associated with green beans

Pilsbury Dough Boy and their products

Redundancy Techniques

Head on apply directly to the forehead


Bud Light appealing to lower class with ads

High beer for high society(in high society voice)

Problems and Issues


Creative Excesses

Advertising Effectiveness


Slogan of where's the Beef

Product Placement

Placing a product into a movie for all to see

Public Opinion Sampling

Public opinion polling is an important activity for the mass media. Probability sampling relies on statistical guidelines that can be incredibly accurate.

George Gallup

Founded the Institute of American Public Opinion

This is now a $5 billion a year business

Evaluating people surveyed

How many interviewed

how were they selected

when was it taken

margin of error

how was it conducted

how were the questions worded

Measuring Audience size

Mass media needs to know the number and kinds of people the reach. done for the print media by audits and for the broadcast media by surveys

Nielsen Ratings

Nielsen Media Research was founded by Arthur Nielsen

nielsen developed a reating system using the methods he and his company had developed for radio. It has since become the primary source of audience measurement information in the tv industry

Measuring Audience Size

Ratings - percentage of all TV equipped houses

Share - percentage of all houses with TVs on


Responsible for Radio Ratings

Walter Lippman

Walter Lippman wrote "Public opinion" and said we see the world as "pictures in our head" influenced by the media

Harold Laswell

studied propaganda during WWI and believed in Bullet or Hypodermic Theory

Hypodermic Needle Theory

Earliest way of thinking

Linear communication theory

Media is injected into passive audience

no individual difference

Paul Lazarfeld

Studied voter behavior and created the Two Step Flow Theory

Two Step Flow Theory

Opinion leaders pay close attention to the mass media and pass on their interpretation to others

Maintains that audiences are active participants

Agenda Setting Function Theory

Media cant tell you what to think but can tell you what to think about

Developed Maxwell Mccombs and Donald shaw

Found a correlation between issues voters believed were important and issues reported in the media

Selective Exposure

people choose to expose themselves to media who reinforce their beliefs

Selective Perception

people hear and see selectively

Selective Retention and Recall

people retain and recall information selectively

Cathartic Effect

Media violence as a positive catharitc effect prompt socially positive action

Catalytic Theory

Media violence as negative

Fourth Estate

Phrase coined by Edmund Burke

Watchdog function

Media watching over the governemnt

Government media relation

broadcast regulation

print regulation

internet regulation


Selecting aspects of reality for emphasis


process in which the media affect the standard used to evaluate political figures and issues

Trial Balloons and Leaks

Government will leak a bit of a topic to see how the public will react before releasing the whole thing


Government will cover up and block out any press on a certain matter

First Admendment

bars the government from limiting freedom of expression, including in the mass media.


Protects creative works for the lifetime of the author plus 70 years

After that time the work enters the public domain

works created on or after Jan 1 1978 are not subject to renewal registration

Prior Restraint

when the government heads off an utterance before its made, it is engaging in prior restraint.

Defamation Libel

If someone writes false damaging things about you, you may sue for libel

*Public figures must prove a rekless disregard for the truth

*Fair comment and criticism is allowed

Privacy Law

The idea that people have a right to limit intrusions on their privacy has been taking form in America. Permission is not required in news coverage, limits how far news reporters can go with their cameras and in writing about personal information

Privacy Law

People have the right to be left alone

Reporters are free to pursue stories in public

Invitation is needed in private places

Harassment can restricted

Journalism Law Constitutional Protections

Cover government as journalists see fit

courts as journalists see fit

access to government meetings

access to government documents

Obscenity and Porno

US Supreme Court ruled that pornography cant be controlled but obscene material can.

Obscene Material

Would a typical person applying local standards see the material as appealing mainly for its sexually arousing effect?

IS the material devoid of serious literacy, artistic, political or scientific value?

Is sexual activity depicted offensive Ina a way that violates state law that explicit defines offensiveness