• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Based on pew research Center data what does the tractor look like since 2001 regarding change and those who oppose or favor same-sex marriage in the US

Greater number of Americans support same-sex marriage what is polygamy what are three different forms

What is polygamy? What are three different forms?

Form of marriage involving two spouses. Three forms are polygany, polyandry, and pantagamy.

What's a domestic partnership?

relationships in which cohabitating individuals are given some kind of official recognition by a city or corporation so as to receive partner benefits (e.g. health insurance).

Can you identify 5 reasons why polygynous relationships predict poor health?

1. limited economic resources

2. unequal treatment across wives

3. verbal/physical aggression is common (especially by other wives)

4. increased loneliness

5. increased jealousy

Family of origin vs. family of procreation vs. nuclear family vs. binuclear family

1. Family of origin- into which person is born or reared (also referred to as family of orientation)

2. Family of procreation- family a person begins by marrying and having children.

3. Nuclear Family- Your current main family (e.g. you and your parents or you and your spouse).

4. Binuclear Family- Family in which members live in 2 separate households (after parents divorced).

What is a blended family?

A family created when two individuals marry and at least one of them brings a child or children from a previous relationship or marriage. Also referred to as a step family.

What is a role reversal family?

Stay at home father. An example would be that mom is the breadwinner, dad stays home.

Regarding stay at home fathers, what does research generally show regarding children's development?

Has positive impact on marriage because father child relationships improve and the mother-child relationship isn't negatively impacted.

-Families face some public criticism

-not widely accepted

-can have negative impact

Social exchange fromework

Individuals view relationships in terms of cost/profit and operate from premise of Utilitarianism.

E.g. rationally weigh rewards/costs on marrying John or Jane.

Might consider: physical appearance, job, immediate family, cleanliness.

Family life course development framework

Emphasizes stage and pattern like developments of families

E.g. date, marry, have children, launch children, aging family.

Structure-function framework

Suggests that marriage and family contribute to larger society.

Helps ensure law abiding, productive, healthy citizen.

Conflict Framework

the view that individuals in relationships compete for valuable resources.

E.g. argue over household labor, who works, moving in together, teenager freedom.

Symbolic interaction framework

Views marriage and families as symbolic worlds in which various members give meaning to each other's behavior

How we view others behavior shapes relationship quality.

E.g. if you ask your partner to wash the dishes and how they respond or react

Health Disparities View

Posits that due to increased stressors that ethnic minority children (discriminatory, unfair, adverse treatment) and those from lower income homes often face (e.g. poor living conditions), these individuals may be more greatly impacted by additional stressors, including family stress.

Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma

Extent to which trauma is transferred from first generation of trauma survivors to the second and further generations of offspring of the survivors through complex post-traumatic stress mechanisms.

-The stress that your parents or grandparents went through, cam impact your development or predispose us to certain things.

3 reasons singlehood may be more accepted and what they are

1. Sexual Revolution- resulted in increased openness/discussion about sexuality

2. Women's movement- emphasized equality in education, employment, and income for women.

3. Gay liberation movement- has provided increased support for a lifestyle consistent with one's sexual attraction.

Based on US Census data, in general what was the average age at first marriage in 1890 for men and women? 1950? How about in 2016?

Men in 1890 was 26, women 22

Men in 1950 was 23, women 21

Men in 2016 was 29, women 27

Based on the Musick and Bumpass (2012) study, did married couples differ thantheir single and cohabiting counterparts in terms of self-esteem, depression symptoms, or perceived physical health?

Those who had been married were no different than single counterparts or couples who cohabitated in terms of self-esteem, depression symptoms, or perceived physical health.

It is critical for those who study marriage and family processes to understand changes in living arrangements over time. Thus, understanding why change occurs is a main objective of those in the field. Cohabitation has increased in robust ways over time, why might this be?

The reasons are: marriage postponed, avoid legal commitments, opportunity to have relationship while establishing career/completing education, and sharing bills.

True/False: The majority of couples who cohabitate with each other end up marrying each other.


Based on the Jose, O'Leary, & Moyer (2013; Journal of Marriage and Family) that is related to cohabitation, certain individuals who cohabitated were more likely to report greater instability (including actually moving out) once marrying. What type of individual was most at risk for this?

Those who lived with multiple people (i.e., cohabited w/ multiple ppl) prior to getting married were more likely to report greater marital instability.

Inertia Effect

Cohabitation may make it more difficult to end a relationship and therefore increases the likelihood that a poorer quality and less committed relationship may progress into marriage. (idea if you cohabitate w/ someone, you might marry them).


views love as a game, often has multiple partners. Does not become dependent on one person.

More common among men, love isn't deep


love that makes logical and rational sense

E.g. individual marries a wealthy person to gain access to resources and economic security.


Romantic love. Often an intense relationship that lasts for along duration. High on passion & sexual desire.

Most common type of love style


out of control love. Person "must have" the other.

Characterized by jealousy, possessiveness, controlling behaviors, over dependence on other


nonsexual love, no intense passion.

Characterized by respect, friendship, commitment.


A selfless and giving love, without expecting anything in return.

E.g. love of a parent

Triangular view of love. What are the three basic elements of love that Sternberg identifies?

Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment

Based on the triangular view of love, what is consummate love?

relationship has intimacy, passion, commitment.

view of ultimate love, ultimate relationship

What is an arranged marriage? Who might arrange the marriage?

Mate selection pattern whereby parents select the spouse of their offspring.

In some cases, might also involve input from others such as grandparents. Parents arrange the marriage.

A number of studies have examined relations between arranged marriage and satisfaction in relationships. Toward gaining a more in-depth understanding of such associations, what might be some variables to consider?

Age at which individuals marry, family income, is arranged marriage common in the culture?

Endogamy and exogamy

Endogamy- cultural expectation to select a marriage partner within one's social group.

Exogamy- cultural expectation that one will marry outside the family group.

Homogamy theory of mate selection

Individuals are attracted to and become involved with those who have similar characteristics

What does circadian preference refer to in regard to homogamy theory of mate selection?

Preference for morningness- eveningness schedules.

-Have the same preference has been linked with increased relationship satisfaction

Based on new Pew Research Data (great resource for reliable data, btw), on average do women marry men who have more education?

No, new data reveals that more women are marrying men with less education.

Complementary needs theory

select partner a partner of the opposite characteristic as you. E.g. if you are an introvert, you marry an extrovert.

Role of Theory of Mate selection

we are interested in a partner who has similar characteristics as our opposite-sex parent (e.g. man looks for a wife who has characteristics similar to those of his mother)

There is a general need to feel accepted and to have positive interpersonal relationships. when individuals are rejected by others, physiological systems can become compromised. Along this line, what did the Blackhart et. al. (2007) study discover?

Those who were rejected, were showing higher levels of cortisol.

Your friend Sam just broke up with her partner and is feeling down. It has now been several months since the breakup and she continues to struggle. Based on the Spielmann, MacDonald and Wilson (2009) study, what could you do to help Sam recover from the breakup? Overall, what does the spielmann et al. study emphasize?

It emphasizes to make Sam feel more optimistic about finding a partner later on

Can you identify 3 reasons as to why those who marry at 18 years of age or younger are at greater risk for divorce?

developing identity, unstable career, lower income

What is relationship churning? Can it actually be healthy for young adult relationships?

A new term for on and off relationships. Yes, it can be healthy for young adult relationships.

What is educational homogamy?

general idea of men or women have similar levels of education

Regarding the sources of conflict, what does leadership ambiguity mean?

Uncertainty about roles in relationship. Conflict often results when roles are not clear. Who pays the bills? Who cleans the inside? Outside?

What is competing conflict style? Collaborating style? Accommodating style?

Competing- partner tries to win argument; try to force their way to win. (Not willing to listen to other person)

Collaborating- Both partners assertive but cooperative. (Requires equal power and trust)

Accommodating- low on assertiveness but very cooperative. (partner agrees with everything)

Gottman's 4 horsemen of the apocalypse. What are they?

1. Criticism- attacking partner's personality or character with intent of making them appear wrong.

2. Defensiveness- perceive self as victim and being attacked.

3. Contempt- strongest predictor of divorce; impacts health.

4. stonewalling- withdraws from conversation.

Why are men more likely to experience stonewalling?

During arguments, men's heart rate will increase faster than a woman's.

Among the 4 horsemen of the apocalypse, which is the strongest predictor of divorce?


Can Gottman's 4 horsemen have an impact on the unborn baby?


What is reflective listening?

paraphrasing or restating what partner said while being sensitive.

What are soft emotions? Hard emotions?

soft emotions are sad and hurt.

hard emotions are angry or aggravated.

What is branching?

going out on different limbs of issue rather than staying on the main issue.

What is Gottman's 5 to 1?

5 positives to every 1 negative and it is shown to improve marital satisfaction

What might the evolutionary perspective suggest regarding sexual vs. emotional cheating their pattern of effects on individuals?

individuals tended to be slightly more upset by emotional cheating than sexual cheating.

Based on the Carpenter (2011; Psychology of Women Quarterly) study, is sexual cheating more harmful than emotional cheating?

several studies found conflicting findings emotional cheating more or equally as devastating for both men and women.

Researchers have demonstrated that marital aggression can negatively impact children's development. Identify 4 facets of a child's development that marital aggression might influence.

1. mental health

2. physical health

3. bioregulatory functioning (sleeping)

4. cognitive development

4 types of defense mechanisms that can hinder resolution attempts; be familiar with each

1. escapism- withdrawing from a problem

2. rationalization- justifying on'es own behavior that unconsciously conceals one's true motives.

3. projection- one partner attributes individual feelings, attitudes, or desires to other partner.

4. Displacement- shifting your feelings thoughts, or behaviors from person who evokes them to another person.

Common law marriage

A heterosexual cohabiting couple presenting themselves as married.

familism vs. individualism

Familism- philosophy in which decisions are made in reference to what is best for the family as a collective unit.

Individualism- philosophy in which decisions are made on the basis of what is best for the individual.

Feminist framework

views marriage and family as contexts of inequality and oppression for women.

Looking glass self

the image ppl have of themselves is a reflection of what other people tell them about themselves (e.g. you are a good student and we are proud of you)

Human ecology framework

views the family and the environment as an ecosystem.

Cross-sectional vs. Longitudinal

cross sectional- studying the whole population at one time (e.g. finding out from all persons now living together at your university about their experience)

Longitudinal- studying the same subjects across time (e.g. collecting data from the same couple during each of their 4 years living together during college)


a stimulus loses its value with repeated exposure or ppl get tired of each other if they spend relentless amounts of time with each other.

Five love languages

identified by Gary Chapman and now part of American love culture, these are gifts, quality time, words of affirmation, acts of service, and physical touch.

Spatial homogamy

the tendency for individuals to marry who grew up in close physical proximity.

Cyclical relationship

when couples break up and get back together several times.

Evolutionary theory of love

theory that individuals are motivated to emotionally bond w/ a partner to ensure a stable relationship for producing and rearing children.


the individual is dependent on virtual environments to the point of having a social phobia.


the ability to emotionally experience and cognitively understand another person and his or her experiences.

Principle of least interest

principle stating that the person who has the least interest in a relationship controls the relationship.