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150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is biochemistry?
- study of the chemical composition and reactions of living matter

- involves inorganic and organic compounds
What are inorganic compounds?
- do not contain carbon

- water, salts, and many acids and bases
What are organic compounds?
- contain carbon

- usually larger molecules

- carbohydrates, fats, proteins and nucleic acids
_______ is the most abundant inorganic molecule in living material.
60%-80% of the volume of living cells is made up of _________.
Water makes up _____%-_____% of living cells.
_______ is the most important inorganic compound in living organisms because of its properties.
Water has ______ heat capacity, meaning what?
high; water has the ability to absorb and release a large amount of heat before changing temperature itself. This prevents sudden changes in temperature.
Water has ______ heat of vaporization, meaning what?
high; lots of energy is required to break the bonds between water molecules. This means that large amounts of heat are absorbed to break hydrogen bonds.

Example: when we sweat, we remove lots of heat (energy) from our body.
Water has ______ solvent properties, meaning what?
polar ; water has the ability to dissolve salts and other compounds.
What inorganic compound is known as the universal solvent?
What property of water allows it to be the "universal solvent?"
polar solvent property
What does it mean to say that water has the property of reactivity?
- water has the ability to be involved in chemical transformations

- dehydration synthesis

- hydrolosis / decomposition
What does it mean to say that water has the property of cushioning?
water has the ability to form a protective cushion around body organs

an example is cerebrospinal fluid
What are salts?
- ionic compounds that dissociate into their components when dissolved in water

- electrolytes (ions) conduct electrical currents in solution

- ions play specialized roles in body functions (sodium, potassium, calcium and iron)
Ionic compounds that ______ into their components when dissolved in water.
What is another term for ions?
What are acids?
- proton donors

- dissociate in water to release H+ and anions (negative ions)
What are bases?
- proton acceptors

- dissociate in water to release OH- and cations (positive ions)
As [H+] increases, ________ increases.
Acid solutions contain [ ______ ].
Alkaline solutions contain [ ______ ].
As [H+] increases, what happens to [OH-]?
As [H+] decreases, alkalinity _______.
What is pH?
- a measure of a solution's acidity

- calculated as the negative logarithm of [H+] in moles per liter

pH = -log [H+]
The pH scale is _________.
A pH 5 solution has _______ times more H+ than a pH 6 solution.
When talking about [H+] and acids, are you concerned about bounded or unbounded H+ ions?
unbounded, free H+'s
The pH scale ranges from _____ to _______.
The pH scale ranging from _______ to _____ indicates an acidic solution.
What pH indicates a neutral solution ?
A pH scale ranging from _____ to ____ indicates an alkaline solution.
As [H+] increases, pH _________.
As [H+] decreases, pH ________.
A solution is more acidic if it's pH is lower or higher?
Why is it important to regulate pH change in the body?
- pH change interferes with cell function and may damage living tissue

- slight change in pH can be fatal
pH is regulated by what organs?
kidneys and lungs
A reaction occurs when an acid and a base are mixed together, forming _____ and a ______.
water, salt


HCL + NaOH -----> water + NaCl
What is a buffer?
- a substance that acts as both an acid or a base to resist pH changes that would damage living tissue
_____ acids make good buffers.
An example of a buffer in the body is....?
carbonic acid-bicarbonate

Do nonliving things have organic compounds?
No; unique to living systems
What are macromolecules?
- type of organic compound

- giant molecules in living matter, formed from smaller molecules
What are common types of macromolecules in the body?
- carbohydrates

- lipids

- proteins

- nucleic acids
Most macromolecules are _______: long chain molecules consisting of similar building blocks that are linked by covalent bonds.
What is polymer?
- a macromolecule chain consisting of similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds.

- the similar building blocks = repeating units = monomers
What is a monomer ?
repeating units of molecules linked by covalent bonds to form polymers
How are polymers formed?
dehydration synthesis
How are polymers broken ?
What is dehydration synthesis?
- monomers are joined by the removal of OH from one monomer and removal of H from the other at the site of bond formation

- water is removed and monomers are linked by a covalent bond.
What is hydrolysis?
- monomers are released by the addition of water molecules, adding the OH of one monomer to the H of another monomer.

- the covalent bond is broken, and one polymer becomes two separate monomers.
Water is released in a _________ reaction.
dehydration synthesis
Polymers are formed by reactions known as __________.
dehydration synthesis
Water is added in a ________ reaction.
Polymers are broken in a _______ reaction.
Sugars and starches are examples of _______.
What are the main functions of carbohydrates?
- serve as cellular fuel (example: glucose)

- serve as structural molecules (example: ribose in RNA)
What elements do carbohydrates contain? In what ratio?
- contain C, H and O

- (C H 2 O) n ratio
What are the three classes of carbohydrates?
- monosaccharides

- disaccharides

- polysacharides
What are monosaccharides?
- simple sugars containing three to seven C atoms

- examples : glucose, fructose, galactose, deoxyribose, ribose)
How do glucose, fructose and galactose differ structurally?
- on the location of OH
How many carbons do glucose, fructose and galactose have?
How many carbons do deoxyribose and ribose have?
How do deoxyribose and ribose differ structurally?
ribose has one less OH group
What are disaccharides?
- double sugars

- two monomers linked through a glycosidic bond that forms during dehydration synthesis

- sucrose = glucose + fructose

- maltose = glucose + glucose

- lactose = glucose + galactose
Disaccharides are two monomers linked through a __________ bond that forms during dehydration synthesis.
__________ are two monomers linked through a glycosidic bond that forms during dehydration synthesis.
Disaccharides are two _______ linked through a glycosidic bond that forms during dehydration synthesis.
Disaccharides are two monomers linked through a glycosidic bond that forms during ________.
dehydration synthesis
What is a glycosidic bond?
a type of covalent bond holding two monomers together, formed from dehydration synthesis
The disaccharide sucrose is made up of what two monomers?
glucose and fructose
The disaccharide maltose is made up of what two monomers?
glucose and glucose
The disaccharide lactose is made up of what two monomers?
glucose and galactose
Polysaccharides are long carbohydrate _________.
What are polysaccharides?
long carbohydrate polymers
What are the types of polysaccharides?
starch and glycogen
Do plants or animals have starch?
Do plants or animals have glycogen?
What are polysaccharides made up of structurally?
linked monosaccharides
What elements do lipids contain?
C, H, O and sometimes P
Lipids are _______ in water.
Are lipids soluble in water?
What are the main types of lipids?
- neutral fats / triglycerides

- phospholipids

- steroids
What are triglycerides?
- neutral fats (solid fats and liquid oils)

- composed of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule

- main functions are energy storage, insulation and protection
What organic compound does this most describe:

" main functions include energy storage, insulation and protection. "
What are triglycerides composed of structurally?
three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
What is a fatty acid?
- component of a triglyceride

- chain of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxyl group on one end.
Three fatty acid chains are bound to ________ by dehydration synthesis to create a triglyceride.
Three fatty acid chains are bound to a glycerol by _________ to create a triglyceride.
dehydration synthesis
When you bind a glycerol to three fatty acid chains via dehydration synthesis, you get what products?
a triglyceride and three water molecules
What determines the solidity of a fatty acid?
- length of fatty acid chain and

- degree of saturation
What does it mean to say that a fatty acid is saturated?
- no double bonds between C atoms in the tail

- "saturated" with H

- rigid structure

- usually solid fat, like butter
What does it mean to say that a fatty acid is unsaturated?
- one or more double bounds between C atoms in the tail

- not saturated with H

- "kink" in the tail

- two types: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
What does it mean to say that a fatty acid is monounsaturated?
- only one kink in the tail, has room for one more H, only one double bond
What does it mean to say that a fatty acid is polyunsaturated?
- many kinks in the tail, has room for lots of H's, many double bonds
A "kink" in the fatty acid chain means what?
- there is a double bond there

- unsaturated point

- most likely a liquid
What is the basic structure of a phospholipid?
- it is a modified triglyceride

- glycerole + two fatty acids + phosphorus

- the head and tail regions have different properties
What type of organic compound makes up the majority component of cell membranes?
What region of a phospholipid is polar?
the head
What region of a phospholipid is nonpolar?
the tail
What are steroids structurally?
interlocking four hydrocarbon ring structures
What are the common types of steroids?
cholesterol, vitamin D, steroid hormones and bile salts
______ is the basis for all steroids formed in the body.
Proteins are made up of what elements?
- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

- sometimes may contain sulfur and phosphorus
What are the monomers of proteins called?
amino acids
Amino acids are structurally made up of what?
- an amine group = NH2

- a carboxyl group = -COOH

- an R group: unique for each type of amino acid
What makes each type of amino acid different?
its R group
What are proteins used for?
structurally or functionally
Amino acids are bonded together by ______ bonds.
Peptide bonds are formed by _________.
dehydration synthesis
Peptide bonds are broken by __________.
Peptide bonds are _______ bonds.
What is the primary structure of proteins like?
- a chain of amino acids = string of beads

- the amino acid sequence
What is the secondary structure of proteins like?
- coiled or folded pattern resulting from hydrogen bonds along the back

- alpha helix is a coiling of the primary chain (twisted structure)

- beta chain is aligning of the adjacent chains (looks like an accordian)
What is the most common secondary structure of proteins?
alpha helix
" The primary chain of proteins is coiled to form a spiral stucture, which is stabilized by _______ bonds. "

The above statement is referring to what structural level of proteins?
hydrogen ; referring to alpha-helix secondary structure of proteins
" The primary chain 'zig-zags' back and form forming a 'pleated' sheet. Adjacent strands are held together by '_____ bonds."

The above statement is referring to what structural level of proteins?
hydrogen ; referring to beta-helix secondary structure of proteins
What is the tertiary structure of proteins like?
- globular 3 dimensional structure formed by bonding between R groups

- superimposed on secondary structure

- alpha helixes and/or beta sheets are folded up to form a compact globular molecule held together by intramolecular bonds
What is the quaternary structure of proteins like?
- two or more polypeptide chains (subunits) grouped together
What are enzymes?
- biological catalysts (type of protein)

- lower the activation energy (energy needed to start a reaction)

- increase the speed of a reaction
What is activation energy?
- the energy needed to start a reaction
What do enzymes lower?
- the activation energy
What do enzymes increase?
- the speed of a reaction
Are enzymes recycled?
What elements do nucleic acids contain?
- carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus
What do nucleic acids do?
- store and transmit genetic information
What are the monomers of nucleic acids?
- nucleotides
What are nucleotides made up of structurally?
- nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and sometimes uracil (U)

- five carbon sugar: ribose or deoxyribose

- phosphate group
Deoxyribonucleic acids are _________ helical molecules in the cell's nucleus.
DNA functions as what?
- the cell's genetic material

- provides instructions for protein synthesis

- replicates before cell division, ensuring genetic continuity
The order of DNA _______ in each person is unique.
nitrogenous bases
Hydrogen bonding between bases in DNA is specific and _________.
Adenine pairs with _________ in DNA
Adenine pairs with ________ in RNA
Cytosine pairs with ______ in DNA
The phosphate of one nucleotide bonds to the _______ of the next nucleotide.
The bonds between nitrogenous bases are called _________.
hydrogen bonds
Ribonucleic acid is a _______ stranded molecule mostly active outside the nucleus.
RNA mostly functions _______ the nucleus, while DNA functions mostly ______ the nucleus.
RNA functions outside, DNA inside
Three varieties of RNA carry out the DNA orders for __________ .
protein synthesis
What are the three types of RNA involved in protein synthesis?
- messenger RNA (mRNA)

- transfer RNA (tRNA)

- ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
What is ATP?
adenosine triphosphate

- energy-transferring molecule

- provides the form of energy immediately available to the cell

- structure is adenosine: adenine+ribose , has three phosphate groups
ATP + water ---> ______ + P + energy
What is the function of ATP?
- phosphorlyation
Explain what phosphorylation is
- enzymes transfer phosphates from ATP to other molecules, increasing the energy/reactivity of the molecules
- the molecules release the phosphate, providing energy to do cellular work including transport, mechanical, and chemical
In phosphorylation, enzymes transfer phosphates from ________ to other molecules.
Transferring phosphates from ATP to other molecules serves what purpose?
Increases the energy of the other molecules.
What needs to happen to provide energy for cellular work?
the last step of phosphorylation; the phosphate has to be released from the molecule to provide energy for the cell to do the work!
In an example of transport work, ATP phosphorylates transport proteins activating them to transport solutes across cell membranes. Explain the steps for that process
1. enzymes transfer phosphate from ATP to transport protein

2. phosphate attaches, giving transport protein energy.

3. the transport protein releases the phosphate, forming ADP. This released energy is used to transport the ion across the membrane.

Energy is thus continuously recycled!
ATP is used to do three types of cellular work. Name those three types.
Transport work, mechanical work, chemical work