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32 Cards in this Set

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What fibers are in the cerebral white matter


association fibers


commissural fibers


projection fibers

association fibers

connect different parts of the same hemisphere

commissural fibers

connect the two hemispheres

projection fibers

connect to the cortex to the rest of the nervous system

Basal nuclei consists of


caudate nucleus


putamen


globus pallidus

diencephalon

forms central core of the brain surrounded by cerebral hemisphers

3 structures of the diencephalon


thalamus


hypothalamus


epithalamus

thalamus


egg shaped bilateral nuclei


although small, have various subarea for a range of functions


relay station for sorting and editing sensory info which is relayed to appropriate are of the brain


crude recognition

hypothalamus


controls autonomic nervous system


initiate physical response to emotions


regulate body temperature


regulate food intake


regulate water balance and thirst


regulate sleep wake cycle


control endocrine system function

epithalamus


pineal gland


secrete melatonin

brainstem 3 major regions


mid brain


pons


medulla oblongata

brain stem

produces automatic behaviors required for survival

mid brain
comprised of cerebral peduncles, corpora quadrigemina, and substantia nigra

pons


contains fiber tracts that complete conduction pathways between the brain and spinal cord


connected to cerebellum laterally and the pontine nuclei

medulla oblongata

is the location of several visceral motor nuclei controlling vital functions such as cardiac and respiratory rate. it blends into spinal cord at foramen magnum

List the major brain regions


Cerebral hemispheres


Diencephalon


Brain Stem


Cerebellum

Cerebral hemispheres


Cortical gray matter


Basal nuclei (ganglia)

Cortical gray matter


with in the cerebral hemispheres


localizes and interprets sensory inputs


controls voluntary and skilled skeletal muscle activity


functions in intellectual and emotional processing

Basal nuclei


within the cerebral hemispheres


subcortical motor centers


helps control skeletal muscle movements

Diencephalon


thalamus


hypothalamus


limbic system

thalamus


relays sensory impulses to cerebral cortex for interpretation


relays impulses between cerebral motor cortex and lower motor centers, including cerebellum


involved in memory processing

hypothalamus


chief integration center of autonomic (involuntary) nervous system


regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, thirst, and biological rhythms and drives


regulates hormonal output of anterior pituitary gland


acts as an endocrine organ, producing posterior pituitary hormones ADH and oxytocin

Limbic system


includes cerebral and diencephalon structures eg hypothamalus and anterior thalamic nuclei


mediates emotional response


involved in memory processing

Brain stem made up of

midbrain


pons


medulla oblongata


reticular formation

midbrain


contains visual (superior colliculi) and auditory (inferior colliculi) reflex centers


contains subcortical motor centers (substantia nigra and red nuclei)


contains nuclei for cranial nerves III and IV


contains projection fibers eg fibers from the pyramidal tracts

Pons


relays information from the cerebrum to the cerebellum


cooperates with the medullary respiratory centers to control respiratory rate and depth


contains nuclei of cranial nerves V-VII


contains projection fibers

medulla oblongata


relays ascending sensory pathway impulse from skin and proprioceptors through nuclei cuneatus and gracilis


contains visceral nuclei controlling heart rate, blood vessel diameter, respiratory rate, vomiting, coughing etc


contains nuclei of cranial nerves viii-xii


contains projection fibers


site of decussation of pyramids

reticular formation


maintains cerebral cortical alertness (reticular activating system)


filters out repetitive stimuli


helps regulate skeletal and visceral muscle activity

Cerebellum


processes information from cerebral motor cortex, proprioceptors and visual and equilibrium pathways


provides instructions to cerebral motor cortex and subcortical motor centers, resulting in smooth, coordinated skeletal muscle movements


responsible for proper balance and posture

Protection of the brain


bone (skull)


membranes (meninges)


watery cushion (cerebrospinal fluid)


blood brain barrier

meninges


3 connective tissue layers


dura matter


arachnoid matter


pia matter

meninges purpose


cover and protect CNS


protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinsues


contain cerebrospinal fluid


form partitions in the skull