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173 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acropolis
high place in a Greek city
agriculture
planting seeds to grow crops
Alexandria

Hellenistic city in Egypt
Athens


City-state of ancient Greece



Augustus

first Roman Emperor, originally named Octavia
aristocracy

upper class or nobility
acropolis
high place in a Greek city
agriculture
planting seeds to grow crops
Alexandria

Hellenistic city in Egypt
Athens


City-state of ancient Greece



Augustus

first Roman Emperor, originally named Octavia
aristocracy

upper class or nobility
artifact

human-made object
artisan

person trained in a particular skill or craft
bronze

mixture of copper and tin
Abraham

father of the Hebrews
afterlife

life believed to follow death

ahimsa

nonviolence
Alexander the Great

spread Greek culture, conquered parts of Asia and Egypt

Aqueduct

pipe or channel that carries water to a city

Bantu
West Africans who migrated south bringing farming and herding to new regions

barracks

buildings used to house soldiers

Buddhism

religion that began in India

Byzantine Empire

eastern Roman Empire which lasted for a thousand years after the fall of the western Roman Empire
Julius Caesar

Roman general and politician, supported by the plebeians, assassinated

caste

social class you belong to from birth

catapult

military machine to hurl rocks

Cicero

Roman consul, orator, opposed Julius Caesar

Cinncinatus

dictator in Rome for a brief time

citizen

a person loyal to a government and protected by that government

city-state

a city and its nearby farmland

civilization

society with advanced development

civil war

war between groups in the same country

climate

weather in a place over a long period of time

code of law

set of rules for people to obey

Colosseum

large arena in Rome where gladiators fought

comedy

form of drama which made fun of important people

Confucianism

philosophy based on Confucius

consul

one of a pair of elected officials who headed executive branch in Rome

cultural diffusion

the spread of culture to other areas of the world
cuneiform

writing system made by Sumerians, made of wedge shapes

Daoism

belief system based on living in harmony with nature

Delian League

alliance of Greek city-states formed at the end of the Persian War to protect Athens and its allies

delta

area near a river's mouth where silt is deposited

democracy

government where citizens make the decisions

dharma

teachings of Buddha

Diaspora

scattering of the Jewish people after forced out of Judea by the Romans

direct democracy
citizens directly run the government by voting on everything

domesticate

to raise and tend to a plant or animal

drama

a story designed to be performed by actors

drought

a period of little or no rain

dynastic cycle

the pattern of the rise and fall of dynasties

dynasty

a line of rulers from the same family

embalm

preserve a body after death

emperor

ruler of an empire

epic poem

a long poem that tells a story of heroes

exile

forced removal from your homeland

Exodus

the migration of the Israelites from Egypt

fable

a short story that conveys a moral lesson

fertile

good for growing crops

Fertile Crescent

area of rich soil stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf
filial piety

respect for one's parents and ancestors, important teaching of Confusianism

fossil

a remain of early life that has been preserved in the ground

Gandhi

a leader who used nonviolence to oppose British rule of India
Gentile

a person who is not jewish
geography

the study of Earth and its people

gladiator

a Roman warrior who fought to entertain the public

government

a system for creating order ad providing leadership

Hammurabi

ruler of Babylonian empire who expanded the empire

Han Dynasty

Chinese dynasty which reunified China

Hanging Gardens of Babylon
gardens built by Nebuchadnezzar, one of the seven wonders of the world
Harappan civilization
ancient Indian culture from Indus River region
Hatshepsut

Female Pharaoh who took control from her stepson

helot

a slave who farmed in ancient Sparta

hemispere

half of the earth

hieroglyph

a picture standing for a word or sound

Himalayas

mountain range in India, Tibet Nepal, Bhutan

Hindu-Arabic numerals

numbers used in USA, originated in India

Hindu Kush

Mountain range along north western border of India

hominid

humanlike creature that walks on two feet

Hunter-gatherer

nomad in search of food

ideal

something in its perfect form

irrigation

watering crops

isthmus

a narrow slip of land that connects two larger landmasses

Jesus

teacher whose life and teachings are the basis of the Christian religion. Believed to be the Son of God.

Judaism

religion of the Hebrews, based on a belief in one god

justice

fair treatment of people

Justinian

Emperor of Eastern Roman Empire who ruled with his wife and reconquered areas
Justinian Code

revised code of law in the Byzantine Empire
Karma

Hindu belief in what you do in this life effects your next life

Khufu

Egyptian Pharaoh who ordered the construction of the largest pyramid every built

Kush

ancient Nubian kingdom that conquered upper and lower Egypt

landform

naturally occurring feature such as an island or mountain

legend

a popular story that cannot be proved

linen

fabric woven from fibers of the flax plant

Mandate of Heaven

ancient Chinese belief that a good ruler has the gods' approval
Marathon

a plain in ancient Greece

Mesopotamia

the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Migration

movement from one region to settle in another

Monotheism

belief in only one god

monsoon

a seasonal wind in southern Asia

Moses

prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt

mummy

body which has been preserved

myth

a story that explains beliefs or natural phenomena, often featuring gods and goddesses

Neolithic Age

The New Stone Age- the beginning of farming

nirvana

in Buddhism and Hinduism, wisdom that breaks the cycle of reincarnation
Nok

ancient civilization noted for manufacturing iron

nomads

people who move from place to place
Nubia

southern Egypt into Sudan

obelisk

four-sided shaft with a pyramid shaped top

oligarchy

government controlled by a few

Olympics

ancient festival to honor Zeus, included athletic events

Mount Olympus

highest mountain in Greece, home of the major gods and goddesses

oracle bone

animal bone or turtle shell used by Shang kings in China to communicate with the gods

oral history

unwritten verbal account of an event

oratory

public speaking

Paleolithic Age
the Old Stone Age, use of stone tools

parable



story that conveys a religious or moral lesson

Parthenon


temple of Athena on the acropolis of Athens



patrician

wealthy landowners who had highest positions in government in ancient Rome

Pax Romana

long period of peace in the Roman Empire starting with the reign of Augustus

Peloponnesian War

war between Athens and the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta who won

Peloponnesus

a peninsula forming the southern part of Greece

peninsula

body of land surrounded on three sides by water

Pericles

leader of Athens who strengthened democracy and expanded the Athenian empire

pharaoh

king of ancient Egypt

philosophy

study of basic truths about the universe

Phoenician

a member of a trading people who lived on the coast of the Mediterranean

physical map

shows landforms and bodies of water
Piankhi

king of Kush who united upper and lower kingdoms

pictograph

picture drawing- early system of writing

plague

a disease that spreads easily and causes death
plebeian

common people of Rome

polis

Greek city-state

political map

shows features people have created such as cities, states, countries

polytheism

belief in many gods or goddesses

pope

bishop of Rome, head of the Roman Catholic Church
primary source

something written or created by a person who witnessed a historical event
province

a part of an empire or a country

pyramid

a structure with four triangular sides that meet at a point

Qin

a state of ancient China

rabbi

religious leader and teacher trained in Jewish tradition
Ramses II

a pharaoh who ruled Egypt for 66 years and greatly expanded the empire

reincarnation

the rebirth of a soul in another body

religion

the worship of a god, gods, or spirits
Remus and Romulus
legendary brothers who founded Rome (Romulus killed Remus)

republic

a form of government in which people elect leaders and representatives

Royal Road

a road for government built by the Persian ruler Darius which helped to unite the empire

satrap

governor of a province in the ancient Persian Empire

scribe

a person who specializes in writing and serves as a record keeper

secondary source

an account of a historical event written by someone who did not witness the event
semiarid

having little rainfall and warm temperatures

senate

a governing body of ancient Rome made up of 300 people

Shi Huangdi

Chinese ruler who came to power and unified China by ending internal battles

Siddhartha Gautama

an Indian prince who founded Buddhism, also known as buddha

Silk Roads

overland trade routes along which silk and other Chinese goods passed to Mesopotamia and Europe
silt

fine fertile soil deposited by a river

slash and burn

preparing land for agriculture by cutting down and burning

smelting

heating and melting of rocks to separate the metals they contain

social class

a group of people with similar customs, backgrounds, training, income

Sparta

Greek city-state on the Peloponnesus noted for military skill

Specialization

skill in one type of work

step pyramid

a pyramid who's sides rise in a series of giant steps
stylus

a sharpened reed used to press markings into clay tablets
subcontinent

a large landmass that is part of a continent but considered a separate landform

succession

the order in which members of a royal family inherit a throne or title

Sumer

an ancient region of southern Mesopotamia

surplus

an amount produced in excess of what is needed

synagogue

a building for Jewish prayer and worship and instruction in the Jewish faithh

technology


people's application of knowledge, tools,


and inventions to meet their needs

Ten Commandments

the basis of the law of the Israelites, given by god to Moses

thematic map

a map that presents a particular type of information about a place or region

toleration

allowing people to keep their customs and beliefs