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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of geography?
The study of the Earth and its people
What are the 2 branches of geography?
Physical and human
What is the definition of physical geography?
covers the topics relating to the surface of the earth
What is the definition of human geography?
the study of the world’s people, communities, & cultures
What is the definition of a map?
a symbolic representation of the earth or a part of the earth on a flat piece of paper
Why do all maps have distortions?
due to attempt to represent 3D on a 2D surface
What is the only true representation of the earth?
A globe
What is the definition of cartography?
the study and practice of making maps
What is a cartographer?
a person who studies and makes maps
What do all good maps contain and why?
Certain tools that are the same that help to interpret the information on that specific map
Why is it important to know the tools of maps and how to use them effectively?
Knowing what these tools are and how to use them will help one use all maps more effectively
What are the 4 tools that aid in reading all maps?
Compass rose, key, scale bar, title
What is a compass rose?
Marker that indicates directions
What are the directions N, S, W, E known as?
Cardinal directions
What are the directions NW, SW, NE, SE known as?
Intermediate directions
What helps one remember how to draw a compass rose correctly?
Weeee and not Ewwww
Which way should North point and why?
Away from you, toward the top of your desk; in order to orient your map correctly
What is a key?
a list that explains what the symbols on a map stand for
How is each key different?
Specific to each map
What is a scale bar?
Shows the relationship between map measurements and actual distance
What is the purpose of a scale bar?
Shows how far it is from one place to another
How do map scales vary?
vary with the size of the area shown
What system of measurement does the US use?
Imperial System
How many countries in the world use the Imperial System?
three countries
What 3 countries in the world use the Imperial System?
Liberia, Myanmar, & the US
Where did the Imperial System originally come from?
Britain
When did Britain switch to the Metric System?
1965
How did the US switch to the Metric System?
US Congress enacted law to switch in 1975
Why isn’t the Metric System more widely used in the US?
Congress made the switch voluntary
How much has not using the Metric System cost the US?
$125 million
What is the example of how much has not using the Metric System has cost the US?
NASA's loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter
What is the definition of map scale?
a proportional relationship between the measurement shown on the map and the measurement of the earth’s surface
What are small–scale maps?
large area with a small amount of data
What are large–scale maps?
show a small area with a great amount of detail
What is the definition of a title?
explains the subject, purpose, or time period of the map
What is the purpose of a title on a map?
gives you an idea what information the map conveys
What is a physical map?
Shows the location and topography of the earth’s physical features
What types of features are found on a physical map?
mountains, deserts, and bodies of water
What is the very simple definition of what can be found on a physical map?
things you can touch
What is a political map?
Shows the boundaries between countries and smaller internal divisions such as states or counties
What types of features are found on a political map?
Features borders of states, counties, capitals, and cities
What is a very simple definition of what can be found on a political map?
things the government creates
What is a thematic map?
emphasize a particular theme or subject and can show various natural and human–made features
What are thematic maps used for?
a particular theme or subject such as climate, natural vegetation, population density, or economic activities
What question does geography begin with and how does a geographer answer that question?
Where is it? To answer this question, a geographer identifies location
What are the 2 ways that location is described in geography?
Relative and Absolute
What is the definition of relative location?
describes how a place is related to its surrounding environment
What does one have to know to find relative location?
can only be found if one is familiar with the specific characteristics of a place
What must relative location always contain in the answer when written?
when written, must ALWAYS contain a cardinal or intermediate direction in the answer
What is the definition of absolute location?
the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found
How is absolute location described?
described using a grid of lines on the earth’s surface; latitude and longitude
What 3 things must absolute location always contain in the answer when written?
must ALWAYS contain the degrees, direction, and line in the answer
What is the definition of hemisphere?
division of the earth into 2 equal halves
What is the definition of equator?
divides the N&S halves of the earth
What is the definition of prime meridian?
divides the E&W halves of the earth
What are latitude lines?
Set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator
What do latitude lines measure?
measure distances north or south of the equator
What is the rhyme that reminds you how latitude lines run?
Lat rhymes with flat – Latitude lines run horizontally or flat
What are longitude lines?
Set of imaginary lines that run around the earth over the poles
What do longitude lines measure?

measure distances east or west starting at the Prime Meridian

What line does one start at to measure latitude?
the Equator
What line does one start at to measure longitude?
the Prime Meridian
What caused the need for time zones?
introduction of railroads
How many times zones are there and why?
24 time zones each 1,000 miles across at the equator
Where do times zones begin?
begin at the Prime Meridian
Where do time zones end?

end at the International Date Line

How does the International Date Line work?
gain one day when crossing to the east, lose one day when crossing to the west
What happens when you cross time zones to the east? Why?

+1 hour because the sun rises in the east

What happen when you cross time zones to the west? Why?
–1 hour because the sun sets in the west
How many time zones does the US have?
the US has 4 times zones
What are the US time zones?
Eastern (farthest east), Central, Mountain, Pacific (farthest west)